Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

Figures and Tables

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pp. vii-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xi

Sixty-seven percent of Japanese land is covered with forest, 40% of which is the result of afforestation. Despite this wealth and a history of silviculture that goes back hundreds of years, Japanese forestry has lost international competitiveness and faces a host of problems...

Acknowledgments

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pp. xii-xii

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Introduction

Yoshiya Iwai

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pp. xiii-xx

This book consists of three parts. Part 1 looks at the development and characteristics of forestry in Japan, where 58% of forests are privately owned. Historically, tree plantations started with such privately owned forests, which for a long time played an important role in supplying wood for the domestic market...

Part 1 Forestry and Forest Policy in Japan: Historical Development and Current Situation

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1 The Development of Japanese Forestry

Junichi Iwamoto

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pp. 3-9

The Japanese have derived benefits from forests throughout history. For example, wood was the primary fuel in Japan until the 1950s. It has also been especially important as a traditional Japanese building material. The world’s oldest currently existing wooden building is found in Japan...

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2 Silviculture in Japan

Mitsuo Fujiwara

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pp. 10-23

Some say that Japanese silviculture is characterized by plantation forests – even-aged plantations developed using clear-cutting. This characteristic is clearly reflected in the fact that two-thirds of Japan’s total land area is covered by forests, 40% of which are planted. There is a continuing argument, however, regarding whether a plantation forest silvicultural system exists and has been implemented...

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3 Private Forestry

Ken-ichi Akao

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pp. 24-40

This chapter deals with private forestry in Japan. Most statistics define a private forest as a privately operated forest, and the statistical figures in this chapter use this definition. In practice, most private forests are managed by the owners, therefore no strict distinction will be made between ownership and management unless stated...

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4 Forest Owners’ Associations

Koji Matsushita and Kunihiro Hirata

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pp. 41-66

Shinrin Kumiai, forest owners’ associations whose members are private forest owners, were first established under Japan’s 1907 Forest Law (also called the Second Forest Law). The direct English translation is “forest cooperative,” but since the shinrin kumiai are thought of as associations of forest owners, the term “forest owners’ association” is used in this chapter...

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5 Forestry Labour

Ichiro Fujikake

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pp. 67-83

Today, one more reason for the intensive labour practices of Japanese forestry should be added, namely, lower mechanization of silvicultural projects compared with other countries because of Japan’s mountainous topography. Reflecting the intensive labour involved in Japanese forestry, research on forestry labour in Japan has a significant share in the forest economics literature...

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6 National Forest Management

Koji Matsushita

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pp. 84-117

Japanese national forest management started at the beginning of the Meiji era (1868-1912). Since then, national forests have been managed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Imperial Household, and the Ministry of Home Affairs, which managed national forests in Hokkaido. After the Second World War, the Ministry of Home Affairs was dissolved...

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7 Forest Planning

Koji Matsushita

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pp. 118-144

This chapter presents an overview of Japan’s forest planning system and discusses its history, current program, and problems within its forest protection and planning systems. Japanese forestry has been guided by three major forest laws, often called the First (1897), Second (1907), and Third (1951) Forest Laws. There have also been minor amendments to these laws (e.g., the 1939 Amendment and the 1957 Amendment), which will also be discussed in this chapter...

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8 National and Regional Forest Policies

Shoji Mitsui

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pp. 145-158

Japan’s forest policy has two major objectives. The first is to contribute to the stabilization of the national economy by maintaining a balance between the supply and demand of forest products, and also to ensure sufficient income and social welfare for rural people engaged in forestry...

Part 2 Forest and Wood Products Industries in Japan

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9 Logging and Log Distribution

Katsuhisa Ito

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pp. 161-178

Despite the growing inventory of standing forest resources in Japan, the country has become more dependent on overseas forest resources to meet the domestic demand for logs and milled timber. For example, in 1997 wood self-sufficiency decreased to 19.6%. It is important to strengthen the Japanese domestic log and timber distribution network by linking domestic forest resources with timber markets and marketing...

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10 The Sawmill Industry

Ichiro Fujikake

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pp. 179-197

Since the fuel revolution in the 1960s, which drastically reduced fuelwood consumption, the Japanese wood demand has changed so that it is now mostly from wood-based industries, especially the sawmill and pulp and paper industries. Traditional Japanese houses are built of various sizes of lumber components...

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11 Home Building and the Home-Building Industry

Tamutsu Ogi

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pp. 198-213

Because many residential areas in Japan were completely destroyed by bombing during the Second World War, there was a shortage of 4.20 million homes in the immediate postwar period (Ministry of Construction 1977). It was not until 1968, 23 years after the war and four years after the Tokyo Olympics, that the total number of homes first exceeded that of households, although this met the housing need only quantitatively...

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12 The Japanese Pulp and Paper Industry and Its Wood Use

Hideshi Noda

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pp. 214-229

Since ancient times, paper consumption has been regarded as one barometer of a culture’s development. Japan’s paper production history can be traced back to the beginning of the seventh century. A papermaking method invented in China in AD 105 spread to Korea in the fourth century and on to Japan in 610...

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13 ocal Forestry and Sawmill Industries: The Case of Kumano, Mie Prefecture

Kozue Taguchi

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pp. 230-243

This chapter presents a case study of the forestry and sawmill industries in a specific area, so that forestry and sawmill industries at a regional level may be understood from actual examples. The area is that of Kumano in Mie Prefecture. Based on field and desk research, the structure of the forestry and sawmill industries in Kumano is examined...

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14 Japan’s Wood Trade

Yoshiya Iwai and Kiyoshi Yukutake

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pp. 244-256

Japan’s total wood demand was 93,809,000 m3 in 1998. Only 22% of this was produced domestically; the other 78% was imported. By comparison, Japan exported only 200,000 m3 of wood. If Japan imports such a large amount of wood, what is her position in the global trade of forest products?...

Part 3 New Trends for Forestry in Japan

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15 Depopulation and (Village Revival)

Takashi Iguchi

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pp. 259-277

Depopulation of rural areas is an old problem, with origins in the 1960s and the recovery of the postwar Japanese economy. After more than 30 years, however, it is also a contemporary problem. The outlook in depopulated areas has changed greatly compared with the situation at the time the phenomenon began...

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16 New Relationship between Forests and City Dwellers in Japan

Yoshiya Iwai

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pp. 278-291

During the past several decades, forestry production in Japan has undergone a drastic decline. The volume of log production has fallen from a peak of 52 million m3 in 1967 to 18.7 million m3 in 1999. Annual reforestation area has decreased by one-eighth, from 430,000 ha in 1954 to 33,860 ha in 1999. What changes, then, have rural communities supported by forestry gone through during this period?...

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17 Treatment of Forests and Wildlife in Modern Society

Atsushi Takayanagi

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pp. 292-306

At present, the Forestry Agency (FA), which is in charge of forest and forestry policy in Japan, is not directly concerned with wildlife policy. In 1971 the Environment Agency (EA) was established and assumed responsibility for wildlife from the Forestry Agency. The FA, however, significantly influences wildlife, since forests, which cover more than 60% of Japan...

Contributors

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pp. 307-308

Index

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pp. 309-316