Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-x

Figures and Tables

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pp. xi-xii

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Preface

Phillip R. Sloan, Gerald McKenny, Kathleen Eggleson

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pp. xiii-xviii

In November of 2009, the University of Notre Dame hosted the conference “Darwin in the Twenty-First Century: Nature, Humanity, and God.” Sponsored primarily by the John J. Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values at Notre Dame, and the Science, Theology, and the Ontological Quest (STOQ) project within the Vatican Pontifical...

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1. Introduction: Restructuring an Interdisciplinary Dialogue

Phillip R. Sloan

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pp. 1-32

Almost exactly fifty years before the Notre Dame conference, the world’s largest centenary commemoration of Darwin’s legacy was held at nearby University of Chicago. This event, organized by a committee spearheaded by University of Chicago anthropologist Sol Tax, drew nearly 2,500 registrants. In attendance were the primary leaders...

Part 1. Nature

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2. Evolution through Developmental Change: How Alterations in Development Cause Evolutionary Changes in Anatomy

Scott F. Gilbert

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pp. 35-60

For the past half-century, the mechanisms of evolution have been explained by the fusion of genetics and evolutionary biology called “the Modern Synthesis.” The tenets of the Modern Synthesis have been generally formulated as such:

1. There is genetic variation within the population.
2. There is competition...

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3. The Evolution of Evolutionary Mechanisms: A New Perspective

Stuart A. Newman

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pp. 61-89

The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, based on Charles Darwin’s concept of natural selection in conjunction with a genetic theory of inheritance in a population-based framework, has been, for more than six decades, the dominant scientific perspective for explaining the diversity of living organisms. In recent years, however, with the growth...

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4. The Evolvability of Organic Forms: Possible, Likely, and Unlikely Change from the Perspective of Evolutionary Developmental Biology

Alessandro Minelli

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pp. 90-115

Confronted with the extraordinary diversity of animal form, we can ask questions about function and adaptation. How does this animal move? How does it feed? How does it defend itself from its enemies? But we can also ask questions about development, reproduction, and heredity. What mechanisms produce these forms? How are these...

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5. Accident, Adaptation, and Teleology in Aristotle and Darwinism

David J. Depew

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pp. 116-143

Charles Darwin framed the Origin of Species to meet criteria for inductive science set out by John Herschel in his Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy (Herschel 1830; Hodge 1977). Accordingly, he was distraught when he learned that Herschel, to whom he had sent a copy of his newly published book, was not...

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6. The Game of Life Implies Both Teleonomy and Teleology

Gennaro Auletta, Ivan Colagè, Paolo D’Ambrosio

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pp. 144-164

The present contribution is mainly aimed at suggesting the importance of teleonomy and teleology as explanatory mechanisms in biology in the light of recent achievements in the field, and at showing that they play an actual and relevant role in the realm of life.
The issue of finality in biology still provokes lively debates in the...

Part 2. Humanity

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7. Humanity’s Origins

Bernard Wood

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pp. 167-181

One of Charles Darwin’s many achievements is that he began the process of converting the Tree of Life (TOL) from a religious metaphor into a biological reality. All types of living organisms, be they animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, are at the end of twigs that reach the surface of the Tree of Life, and all the types of organisms...

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8. Darwin’s Evolutionary Ethics: The Empirical and Normative Justifications

Robert J. Richards

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pp. 182-200

In the increasingly secular atmosphere of the nineteenth century, intellectuals grew wary of the idea that nature had any moral authority. In an earlier age, one might have looked upon the dispositions of nature as divinely sanctioned, and thus one could call upon natural law to ground moral judgment. Certain behaviors, for instance, might have...

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9. Crossing the Milvian Bridge: When Do Evolutionary Explanations of Belief Debunk Belief?

Paul E. Griffiths, John S. Wilkins

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pp. 201-231

Two traditional targets for evolutionary skepticism are religion and morality. Evolutionary skeptical arguments against religious belief are continuous with earlier genetic arguments against religion, such as that implicit in David Hume’s Natural History of Religion (Hume [1757] 1956; Kahane 2011, 121n10). Evolutionary arguments are also...

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10. Questioning the Zoological Gaze: Darwinian Epistemology and Anthropology

Phillip R. Sloan

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pp. 232-266

This quotation from Darwin’s Descent of Man illuminates an under-explored issue in Darwin’s work—not the issue of evolutionary ethics itself, but the epistemology of experience assumed in his work, and the consequences of his application of this “zoological gaze” to human beings. I will term this epistemological stance in this chapter “natural historical...

Part 3. God

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11. Evolution and Catholic Faith

John O’Callaghan

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pp. 269-298

To begin to examine the relation of orthodox Catholic Christian faith to evolutionary theory and the question of human origins, consider words of the fourth pope, St. Clement:

Let us fix our gaze on the Father and Creator of the whole world, and let us hold on to his peace and blessings, his splendid and surpassing...

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12. After Darwin, Aquinas: A Universe Created and Evolving

William E. Carroll

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pp. 299-337

At the 2000 Jubilee Session for scientists, held at the Vatican in May of that year, Archbishop Józef Życiński offered an eloquent assessment of contemporary discourse on the relationship between the natural sciences and theology. He ended his address with the comment that what is needed today is a new Thomas Aquinas. I remember...

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13. Evolutionary Theism and the Emergent Universe

Józef Życiński

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pp. 338-354

The 150th anniversary of the publication of Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species has been celebrated in the context of an animated debate concerning both scientific and philosophical issues implied by the theory of evolution.1 One finds a deep diversity of attitudes, both methodological and semantic, in the current debates on evolutionary...

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14. Beyond Separation or Synthesis: Christ and Evolution as Theodrama

Celia Deane-Drummond

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pp. 355-380

The fervor with which popular discourse on science and religion has continued to bubble up in the anniversary year celebrating Darwin’s achievements shows that the publically perceived conflict between science and religion will not go away. Academic discussion on such matters is therefore not just peripheral to cultural concerns but takes...

Part 4. Past and Future Prospects

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15. Imagining a World without Darwin

Peter J. Bowler

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pp. 383-403

What would have happened if Charles Darwin had not lived to write On the Origin of Species? Perhaps his bad health caused the early death he feared, or maybe he fell overboard while on the voyage of the Beagle. Would the world have still experienced the Darwinian Revolution under another name, or would the history of science, and...

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16. What Future for Darwinism?

Jean Gayon

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pp. 404-423

What future for Darwinism? I will propose some criteria for exploring this question in the domains of both evolutionary biology and the human sciences. Do not expect me to tell you where we will stand thirty years from now. It will be enough to identify a few general tendencies. For the sake of brevity, I will not devote a preamble to explain...

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Contributors

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pp. 424-430

Gennaro Auletta is researcher at the University of Cassino, aggregate professor at the Pontifical Gregorian University, former scientific director of the STOQ Project, scientific director of the specialization “Science and Philosophy,” fellow of St Edmund’s College of the University of Cambridge, and associate of the Von Hügel Institute of...

Index

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pp. 431-461

Back Cover

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