Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Illustrations, Tables, Figure, and Map

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xiii

How good and how pleasant it is to give thanks and praise to the many who have helped enable me to complete this work. Almost fifteen years ago I picked up and read a book James Anderson had written about the history of African American education. I was hooked. His work inspired...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-8

When the incisive wit of Richard Pryor’s Bicentennial Nigger warms my heart, I recall my hopes and dreams in 1976 as a young American who happened to be of color. I had no limits. My vision was to become the first black to be elected to the U.S. Senate from Texas, perhaps...

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1. As Separate as the Fingers: Higher Education in Texas from Promise to Problem, 1865–1940

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pp. 9-33

Before black Texans had their own history, schools, churches, warriors, martyrs, and women and men of big affairs, they had Juneteenth. It may not have looked like much in the eyes of an arrogant world, but it was everything black Texans had, and they each loved and cherished...

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2. The All-Out War for Democracy in Education: Ideological Struggle and the Texas University Movement

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pp. 34-65

After 1940, higher education policy and racial politics in the United States began to collide, and from their collision came one of the most significant fronts in the battle for black democratic rights and the dismantling of America’s version of apartheid. Texas became the...

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3. Lift the Seventy-Five-Year-Old Color Ban and Raise UT’s Standards: University Students for Democracy before Sweatt

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pp. 66-94

Money and numbers are the language of politics, and the Texas NAACP expanded rapidly in both categories with victory in the Smith Democratic primary case. As never before in its history, the association suddenly became a player in the raucous arena of Texas politics. Statewide...

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4. This Is White Civilization’s Last Stand: University Desegregation before Brown

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pp. 95-137

Bringing law to the side of desegregation represented a landmark achievement, but it was also an empty glove without the flesh and blood experience of the individuals who crossed the line to make the legal victory a lived reality. The women and men who breathed life into...

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5. Democracy Is on the March in Texas: Black Equality versus White Power, 1955–1957

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pp. 138-195

Through Brown, the civil rights movement gave the United States a new and radical interpretation of its Constitution—so much for that. Almost two years after the ruling, Thurgood Marshall, the attorney who presented the school desegregation cases before the Supreme Court...

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6. Plowing around Africans on Aryan Plantations: Access without Equity at Texas Universities, 1958–1965

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pp. 196-217

In the aftermath of the state’s assault on civil liberties, Texas white supremacists began to realize that sanctions against the democratic movement for racial integration could only slow the pace of change; it could not reverse its direction. By disrupting the work of the NAACP, the attorney...

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Coda

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pp. 218-222

By 1965, in order to secure greater access to educational opportunities for themselves and their children, Negroes had, as James Baldwin wrote in his book The Fire Next Time, stuffed ‘‘their pride in their pockets’’ to the point that they began to burst. Even as African Americans...

Notes

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pp. 223-280

Bibliography

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pp. 281-294

Index

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pp. 295-301