Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

Completion of this project is the result of much assistance from many people, all wise and kind. I wish to acknowledge, with much gratitude, the help I have received during the preparation of this work. Ronald L. Lewis, Kenneth PonesWolf, John R. McKivigan, and Robert Blobaum have all given...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-15

Insecure claims to their lands and a state government system that was prejudiced against their interests in eighteenthcentury settlement days created a symphony of hardship for the original settlers in much of what is now West Virginia. Long-standing speculation...

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1 Imperial Politics: Early Speculators and the Leather Stocking Assault upon Virginia's Transmontane

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pp. 16-28

Petroglyphs, pictographs, and carvings on trees provide evidence that for centuries humans have lived and hunted within the Appalachian mountain ranges that now constitute modern West Virginia. Long before the arrival of settlers in leather stockings or investors in silk stockings, ancient Indian...

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2 Settler Politics: Jostling for Place and Power in the Brand-New West

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pp. 29-44

Some of the wealthy landowners lived within the Monongahela region. Michael Cresap, George Croghan, Saveray de Valcoulon, Albert Gallatin, and Thomas, sixth Lord Fairfax were prominent western speculators.1 Along the Cheat River, Francis and William Deakins conducted a land business that...

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3 Backcountry Politics: Planter Economics and Frustrations in the West

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pp. 45-55

Despite the obvious difficulties and disadvantages that accompanied settlers when they crossed the Appalachian Mountains, multitudes of them continued to stake their hopes for their futures on lands in Virginia's transmontane. They could not yet know of the many tribulations that lay in wait...

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4 Robber Baron Politics: Tax Breaks for Industry and Legislated Defeat for Western Residents

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pp. 56-73

In the decades after 1830, interest in the economic potentials of the West gathered momentum. Absentee holders of Virginia treasury warrants took advantage of the federal government's laissez-faire policy toward business to eject descendants of early transmontane settlers, who were by then...

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5 Pufferbilly Politics: Coal Dust, Sawdust, and Cinders on the Farmland

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pp. 74-89

Political defeat of the West in 1830 and 1851 created a nurturing environment in which wealthy and ambitious men could direct the industrial development within Virginia's mountains. The influence of industry increased rapidly between 1850 and 1860. Traditional mountain farm society...

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6 Farmer Politics: Life and Work with and without Coal, with and without Absentees

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pp. 90-100

A few counties in West Virginia did not industrialize and were not coveted by absentees. The farmers of Monroe County retained control of the land and the local government, with the result that traditional agriculture characterized the region through the twentieth century. A gentry class evolved...

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7 Champagne Politics: Scrambling for Every Tree, Crushing Every Foe

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pp. 101-114

During the 1880s, industrialists tightened their grip on the timber and mineral resources of the Monongahela. The ensuing frenzy of mining and timbering in the years before the First World War forever changed life in the mountains. Participating wholeheartedly in the transition, the government...

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8 Reform Politics: Tariff Woes and West Virginia's Backwoods Campaign

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pp. 115-125

No local character with the wealth and the stature of Kentucky tycoon John C.C. Mayo emerged from the Monongahela, but local leaders were essential to the success of industrialization within the region.1 John Thomas McGraw of Grafton succeeded as an agent of the industrialists, primarily...

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9 Pulp and Paper Politics: Swashbuckling through the Forest and Poaching the Game

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pp. 126-137

Samuel E. Slaymaker was one of the most successful timbermen in the Monongahela region. His successes on his own and his later associations with the Whitmer companies and Condon and Lane inevitably drew him to the top. By 1900 his affiliation with the West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company...

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10 Federal Politics: Conservation, Reforestation, and Economic Gridlock

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pp. 138-152

The influence of absentee landowners and industrialists is a poorly explored chapter in the long history of the mountains of the Virginias. A further perplexing aspect of the region's history is its ultimate transfer to the public domain as the Monongahela National Forest. The accounts of the great land...

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11 Ptolemaic Politics: Copernican Thinking and Changing the Political Paradigms

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pp. 153-162

Since the eighteenth century, the majority of landowners in the Monongahela region have favored higher taxes to fund improvements, but the region's powerful absentee owners have succeeded in keeping property taxes low.1 Absentees remain singularly important in influencing the affairs...

Notes

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pp. 163-188

Bibliography

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pp. 189-208

Index

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pp. 209-222