Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xiv

In many ways, this book grew out of my prior book project, Pneumonia Before Antibiotics, as I’ve continued to engage in the clinic and as a historian with issues of therapeutic autonomy, education, regulation, and innovation. Indeed, Jeremy Greene has quipped that I should have titled this book “Pneumonia After Antibiotics.” Since the publication of...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-9

In March 1994, as both experts and the media increasingly turned their attention to the “crisis” of antibiotic resistance, Newsweek posed a question: Is this “The End of Antibiotics?” Three weeks later, Newsweek asked again, this time as its cover story, “Antibiotics: The End of Miracle Drugs?” Offering “plenty of blame to go around,” the story’s writers pointed to the...

read more

1. The Origins of Antibiotic Reform

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 10-42

The birth of antibiotic reform in the United States predated our present near-exclusive focus on antibiotic resistance, emerging bugs, and receding drugs. Such 1950s reform efforts were not even a response to the well-publicized adverse effects of Parke-Davis’s Chloromycetin, though such adverse effects are detailed in this chapter, and certainly contributed...

read more

2. Antibiotics and the Invocation of the Controlled Clinical Trial

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 43-72

The changing focus of the infectious disease vanguard of the 1950s would have indelible consequences for both the field of antibiotics and the larger domain of pharmacotherapy. With respect to the particular form of “therapeutic rationalism” the antibiotic reformers led by Max Finland would take, the events of the 1950s would lead to more than a decade’s worth...

read more

3. From Sigmamycin to Panalba: Antibiotics and the FDA

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 73-111

Senator Estes Kefauver’s hearings into the pharmaceutical industry—beginning in late 1959, and resulting in the Kefauver-Harris amendments of 1962—were a watershed event in twentieth-century therapeutics. Serving as a model for the power of the investigative hearing in the age of both print and electronic media, Kefauver’s highly visible efforts to protect...

read more

4. “Rational” Therapeutics and the Limits to Delimitation

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 112-139

The withdrawal of the fixed-dose combination antibiotics signified the end of a particular era of antibiotic reform. It also represented the limit to the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) willingness to shape antibiotic prescribing in this country. The FDA had been empowered to remove “irrational” drugs, those that did not meet its evolving standard of efficacy, from...

read more

5. Responding to Antibiotic Resistance

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 140-179

In 1954, Allen Hussar, chief of the medical service at the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Veterans Administration Hospital in New York, called for “a crusade for the rational use of antibiotics” at Henry Welch’s annual antibiotics symposium in the nation’s capital. Anticipating accusations of overreaction, Hussar summarized the litany of consequences resulting from the...

read more

Conclusion

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 180-188

The title page of soil microbiologist Selman Waksman’s own book The Antibiotic Era (1975) bears a biblical-sounding quote: “Out of the Earth Shall Come thy Salvation.”1 Antibiotics were indeed miracle drugs, but they represented the fruits of rational medical science, of the combined efforts of a research-intensive pharmaceutical industry and an increasingly...

List of Abbreviations

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 189-192

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 193-298

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 299-309