In this Book

buy this book Buy This Book in Print
summary
At a time when Internet use is closely tracked and social networking sites supply data for targeted advertising, Lars Heide presents the first academic study of the invention that fueled today’s information revolution: the punched card. Early punched cards helped to process the United States census in 1890. They soon proved useful in calculating invoices and issuing pay slips. As demand for more sophisticated systems and reading machines increased in both the United States and Europe, punched cards served ever-larger data-processing purposes. Insurance companies, public utilities, businesses, and governments all used them to keep detailed records of their customers, competitors, employees, citizens, and enemies. The United States used punched-card registers in the late 1930s to pay roughly 21 million Americans their Social Security pensions, Vichy France used similar technologies in an attempt to mobilize an army against the occupying German forces, and the Germans in 1941 developed several punched-card registers to make the war effort—and surveillance of minorities—more effective. Heide’s analysis of these three major punched-card systems, as well as the impact of the invention on Great Britain, illustrates how different cultures collected personal and financial data and how they adapted to new technologies. This comparative study will interest students and scholars from a wide range of disciplines, including the history of technology, computer science, business history, and management and organizational studies.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. open access View | Download |
  1. Frontmatter
  2. open access Download |
  1. Contents
  2. open access View | Download |
  1. Introduction
  2. pp. 1-14
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. 1 Punched Cards and the 1890 United States Census
  2. pp. 15-37
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. 2 New Users, New Machines
  2. pp. 38-67
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. 3 U.S. Challengers to Hollerith
  2. pp. 68-104
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. 4 The Rise of International Business Machines
  2. pp. 105-127
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. 5 Decline of Punched Cards for European Census Processing
  2. pp. 128-137
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. 6 Punched Cards for General Statistics in Europe
  2. pp. 138-163
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. 7 Different Roads to European Punched-Card Bookkeeping
  2. pp. 164-210
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. 8 Keeping Tabs on Society with Punched Cards
  2. pp. 211-251
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. Conclusion
  2. pp. 252-267
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. 269-270
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. Appendix: Financial Information: Tables and Figures
  2. pp. 271-277
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. Notes
  2. pp. 279-350
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. Essay on Sources
  2. pp. 351-359
  3. open access View | Download |
  1. Index
  2. pp. 361-369
  3. open access View | Download |

Additional Information

ISBN
9780801898723
Print ISBN
9780801891434
MARC Record
OCLC
647917303
Pages
376
Launched on MUSE
2012-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
Y
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.