Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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p. vii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xvii

IN THIS MONOGRAPH I will present evidence in support of a number of wide spread regularities concerning the categorization and nomenclature of plants and animals by peoples of traditional, nonliterate societies. My major claim here is that the observed structural and substantive typological regularities found among systems of ethnobiological classification of traditional peoples ...

Part 1: Plan

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pp. 1-2

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1. On the Making of a Comparative Ethnobiology

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pp. 3-51

As its name implies, ethnobiology as a discipline combines the intuitions, skills, and biases of both the anthropologist and the biologist, often in quite unequal mixtures. There is no generally accepted definition of the field, al though most practicing ethnobiologists would probably agree that the field is devoted to the study, in the broadest possible sense, of the complex set of ...

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2. The Primacy of Generic Taxa in Ethnobiological Classification

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pp. 52-101

ONE OF THE ESSENTIAL questions of modern systematic biology is why species exist. For ethnobiological classification, one adds the equally essential questions, of those species that exist, which are recognized and why? Picture an ethnographer in the field just beginning fieldwork with a group of Indians somewhere in the upper Amazon of South America. Building a ...

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3. The Nature of Specific Taxa

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pp. 102-133

A FOLK GENERIC may be divided into two to several named subgroups. The categories that result from such splitting of folk genera will be referred to here as folk specific taxa. In accordance with standard usage, generic classes that are further divided into named subgroups are said to be polytypic, in contrast with the large majority of folk genera, that contain no further named subgroup-...

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4. Natural and Not So Natural Higher-Order Categories

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pp. 134-196

Every animal has a something in common with all of its fellows: much, with many of them, more, with a few; and, usually, so much TOWARD THE MIDDLE of chapter 2, I provided a hypothetical example of the biological collecting efforts of a naturalist somewhere in the rain forests of South America. The reader will recall that the naturalist was involved in car ...

Part 2: Process

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pp. 197-198

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5. Patterned Variation in Ethnobiological Knowledge

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pp. 199-231

EVER SINCE SAPIR (1938),1 anthropologists have recognized the truism that cultural knowledge is distributed throughout a population in ways related to a number of factors, associated at least with a person's sex and age, social status and role, kinship affiliation, personal experience, and basic intelligence. The manifestation of this knowledge in action is strongly constrained by social ...

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6. Manchiing and Bikua: The Nonarbitrariness of Ethnobiological Nomenclature

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pp. 232-259

TAKE ANOTHER LOOK at the line drawings in figure 6.1. These are rough ap proximations of the drawings used in a famous experiment on sound symbol ism described several decades ago by the great German gestalt psychologist Wolfgang Kohler (1929). In the study, subjects were asked to look at the drawings and to assign the nonsense words, takete and maluma, to the figure ...

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7. The Substance and Evolution of Ethnobiological Categories

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pp. 260-290

THE CENEPA RIVER takes a 90-degree tum at the small Aguaruna settlement of Huampami (Wampam), affording the observer standing on its northern bank an unobstructed view of the steep slopes that form the constrictive channel guiding the river's clouded waters southward to the Marafion and finally the Amazon. In late afternoon, a falling western sun illuminates the face of ...

References

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pp. 291-308

Author Index

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pp. 309-312

Index of Scientific Names

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pp. 313-321

Index of Ethnobiological Names

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pp. 322-330

Subject Index

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pp. 331-335