Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

...Nazionale Centrale of Rome, the Biblioteca di Storia Moderna e Contemporanea in Rome, and the Istituto Gramsci in Rome. I am especially grateful, however, for the gracious help provided by Dott. Mario Missori and Dott. Costanzo Casucci of the Archivio Centrale dello Stato in Rome, and by Dott. Elio Sellino, the...

Abbreviations

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pp. xiii-xvi

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Introduction

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pp. 3-8

...and intellectual vitality of Carlo Cafiero, Andrea Costa, and Errico Malatesta. Malatesta, whose sixty-year career is little known outside of Italy, stands with Michael Bakunin and Peter Kropotkin as one of the great revolutionaries of international...

Part 1 Bakunin and the Origins of Italian Anarchism

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1. Bakunin and the Italians, 1864-1870

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pp. 11-32

...mid-nineteenth- century standards. Nor could it have been otherwise. The conservative liberals who supported the House of Savoy were triumphant in their cause and ruled exclusively in the interests of Italy's economic and social elite. The democratic...

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2. The Rise of the International in Italy, 1870-1872

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pp. 33-54

...when their pleas fell on deaf ears, they stormed the buildings, burned official records, and destroyed the new counting devices at the mills. Homes of the rich were occasionally sacked, and barricades erected to resist the carabinieri and soldiers...

Part 2 The Italian International

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3. The Italian Federation of the Iwa, 1872-1874

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pp. 57-81

...supporters and thereby assure victory for Marx. To counter the Marxists' strategy, Bakunin and his Swiss lieutenant James Guillaume first considered boycotting the congress and establishing a rival International, but in August they decided that all Bakuninists should attend the congress and demand the abolition of the...

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4. Insurrection and Repression, 1874-1876

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pp. 82-105

...rising prices and unemployment. Wage strikes and cost-ofliving demonstrations multiplied in Florence, Livorno, Pisa, Rome, the Neapolitan provinces, and central Lazio throughout 1873, then spread northward the following spring to Forli, Imola...

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5. Resurgence and Insurrection, 1876-1877

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pp. 106-128

...insurrection, although Bakuninism still provided the conceptual basis for the anarchists' approach to direct action. In theoretical matters pertaining to the future organization of society, however, some Italian leaders were already beginning...

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6. The Twilight of the Italian International, 1877-1878

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pp. 129-146

...Nicotera, and Francesco Crispi—were former democrats who had fought against the Bourbons in the name of justice and liberty, many of them suffering persecution and imprisonment in the process. Because of their Risorgimento record...

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7. The Suppression of the Italian International, 1878-1880

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pp. 147-158

...vent, not repress" employed by their predecessors.x In practice, Zanardelli's liberal tolerance extended only to respectable, middle-class radicals like the republican irredentists, not to the working-class revolutionaries of the International. Zanardelli...

Part 3 Crisis, Transformation and Decline

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pp. 159-164

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8. The Defection of Andrea Costa, 1879-1882

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pp. 165-178

...his thirteen-month imprisonment in Paris in 1878- 1879. An early shift from orthodoxy may have been evidenced in Costa's open letter of January 25, 1877, to Nicotera, stating that by means of conspiracy a change in the form of government might...

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9. Crisis and Metamorphosis, 1879-1883

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pp. 179-200

...the anarchists had been officially branded malfattori; the exile of key leaders, especially Cafiero and Malatesta, capable of energizing and leading; and the dissension and chaos caused by Costa's apostasy. As a result of this prolonged crisis, the anarchist movement experienced a significant transformation and decline between...

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10. Struggling to Survive, 1883-1885

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pp. 201-216

...before, as did the promise of economic and social reforms to workers and artisans desperate for a better life but reluctant to follow a revolutionary course. Nevertheless, the lure of these hypothetical gains did not suddenly attract legions of new followers to the legalitarian cause. The principal and immediate beneficiaries of the 1882...

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11. Too Little, Too Late, 1885-1890

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pp. 217-243

...convinced some anarchists that the time had come to shake off the lethargy of the post-International period and resume militant action in close association with the workers and peasants. While the majority of their comrades remained passive and disapproving, a...

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12. Malatesta and Resurgence, 1889-1891

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pp. 244-257

...return to Italy or Europe as soon as possible. As usual, nothing went according to plan. Save for six months in 1886, during which he, Palla, Agostinelli, and a few other comrades panned unsuccessfully for gold in the wilds of Patagonia, Malatesta spent most of his Argentine sojourn in Buenos Aires, working as a mechanic...

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13. Descent into Isolation, 1891-1892

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pp. 258-281

...their attention to May Day. Transforming peaceful demonstrations for jobs and the eight-hour day into an insurrectionary upheaval would require extensive preparation and broad popular support, demands sure to put the anarchists to the test...

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Epilogue 1892-1900

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pp. 282-294

...excluding the anarchists, the legalitarians formalized the schism that had long existed with Italian socialism, crystallizing the polarity between the parliamentary and antiparliamentary approaches and accelerating the isolation and decline of their rivals. The legalitarians had been gaining strength since Costa's...

Bibliography

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pp. 295-312

Index

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pp. 313-326