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  • Collective Courage: A History of African American Cooperative Economic Thought and Practice
  • By Jessica Gordon Nembhard
  • 2014
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  • Published by: Penn State University Press
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In Collective Courage, Jessica Gordon Nebhard chronicles African American cooperative business ownership and its place in the movements for Black civil rights and economic equality. Not since Du Bois’ 1907 Economic Cooperation among Negroes has there been a full-length, nation-wide study of African American cooperatives. Collective Courage extends that story into the twentieth century. Many of the players are well-known in the history of the African American experience: W. E. B. Du Bois, A. Philip Randolph and the Women’s Auxiliary of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, Nannie Helen Burroughs, Fannie Lou Hamer, Ella Jo Baker, George Schuyler and the Young Negroes Cooperative League, the Nation of Islam, and the Black Panther Party. Adding the cooperative movement to Black history provides a retelling of the African American experience, with an increased understanding of African American collective economic agency and grassroots economic organizing. To tell the story, Gordon Nembhard pores over newspapers, period magazines and journals; co-ops’ articles of incorporation, minutes from annual meetings, newsletters, budgets and income statements; scholarly books, memoirs and biographies to reveal the achievements and challenges of Black co-ops, collective economic action, and social entrepreneurship. She also uses mixed methods economic analysis of quantitative and qualitative data, theoretical analysis and applied theory to understand the effectiveness of the particular practices and/or strategies documented. Themes of economic independence, the critical role of women and youth in the African American cooperative movement, and the use of cooperatives by Black organizations for community economic development are interwoven into a linear treatment of the development of cooperatives among African Americans in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Gordon Nembhard finds that African Americans, as well as other people of color and low-income people, have benefitted greatly from cooperative ownership and democratic economic participation throughout the nation’s history.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Front
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  1. Title Page, Copyright Page
  2. pp. i-vi
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  1. Table of Contents
  2. pp. vii-viii
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  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. ix-xii
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  1. Introduction: A Continuous and Hidden History of Economic Defense and Collective Well-Being
  2. pp. 1-26
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  1. Part One: Early African American Cooperative Roots
  2. pp. 27-30
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  1. Chapter 1: Early Black Economic Cooperation: Intentional Communities, Communes, and Mutual Aid
  2. pp. 31-47
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  1. Chapter 2: From Economic Independence To Political Advocacy: Cooperation and the Nineteenth-Century Black Populist Movement
  2. pp. 48-59
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  1. Chapter 3: Expanding the Tradition: Early African American–Owned “Cooperative” Businesses
  2. pp. 60-78
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  1. Part Two: Deliberative Cooperative Economic Development
  2. pp. 79-84
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  1. Chapter 4: Strategy, Advocacy, and Practice: Black Study Circles and Co-op Education on the Front Lines
  2. pp. 85-111
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  1. Chapter 5: The Young Negroes’ Co-operative League
  2. pp. 112-125
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  1. Chapter 6: Out of Necessity: The Great Depression and “Consumers’ Cooperation Among Negroes”
  2. pp. 126-147
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  1. Chapter 7: Continuing the Legacy: Nannie Helen Burroughs, Halena Wilson, and the Role of Black Women
  2. pp. 148-171
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  1. Chapter 8: Black Rural Cooperative Activity in the Early to Mid-Twentieth Century
  2. pp. 172-188
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  1. Part Three: Twentieth-Century Practices, Twenty-First-Century Solutions
  2. pp. 189-192
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  1. Chapter 9: The Federation of Southern Cooperatives: The Legacy Lives On
  2. pp. 193-212
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  1. Chapter 10: Economic Solidarity in the African American Cooperative Movement: Connections, Cohesiveness, and Leadership Development
  2. pp. 213-238
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  1. Time Line of African American Cooperative History, 1780–2012: Selected Events
  2. pp. 239-250
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  1. Notes
  2. pp. 251-262
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  1. References
  2. pp. 263-290
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 291-311
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  1. Cover Back
  2. p. 312
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Additional Information

ISBN
9780271064260
Related ISBN(s)
9780271062167
MARC Record
OCLC
881300585
Pages
320
Launched on MUSE
2014-06-11
Language
English
Open Access
No
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