In this Book

Princeton University Press
summary

Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term "computer" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology.

Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider world of women and men who did the hard computational labor of science. His grandmother's casual remark, "I wish I'd used my calculus," hinted at a career deferred and an education forgotten, a secret life unappreciated; like many highly educated women of her generation, she studied to become a human computer because nothing else would offer her a place in the scientific world.

The book begins with the return of Halley's comet in 1758 and the effort of three French astronomers to compute its orbit. It ends four cycles later, with a UNIVAC electronic computer projecting the 1986 orbit. In between, Grier tells us about the surveyors of the French Revolution, describes the calculating machines of Charles Babbage, and guides the reader through the Great Depression to marvel at the giant computing room of the Works Progress Administration.

When Computers Were Human is the sad but lyrical story of workers who gladly did the hard labor of research calculation in the hope that they might be part of the scientific community. In the end, they were rewarded by a new electronic machine that took the place and the name of those who were, once, the computers.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
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  1. Title Page, Copyright
  2. pp. i-vi
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  1. Contents
  2. pp. vii-x
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  1. INTRODUCTION: A Grandmother’s Secret Life
  2. pp. 1-8
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  1. PART I: Astronomy and the Division of Labor 1682–1880
  2. pp. 9-10
  1. CHAPTER ONE: The First Anticipated Return: Halley’s Comet 1758
  2. pp. 11-25
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  1. CHAPTER TWO: The Children of Adam Smith
  2. pp. 26-45
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  1. CHAPTER THREE: The Celestial Factory: Halley’s Comet 1835
  2. pp. 46-54
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  1. CHAPTER FOUR: The American Prime Meridian
  2. pp. 55-71
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  1. CHAPTER FIVE: A Carpet for the Computing Room
  2. pp. 72-88
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  1. PART II: Mass Production and New Fields of Science 1880–1930
  2. pp. 89-90
  1. CHAPTER SIX: Looking Forward, Looking Backward: Machinery 1893
  2. pp. 91-101
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  1. CHAPTER SEVEN: Darwin’s Cousins
  2. pp. 102-118
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  1. CHAPTER EIGHT: Breaking from the Ellipse: Halley’s Comet 1910
  2. pp. 119-125
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  1. CHAPTER NINE: Captains of Academe
  2. pp. 126-144
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  1. CHAPTER TEN: War Production
  2. pp. 145-158
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  1. CHAPTER ELEVEN: Fruits of the Conflict: Machinery 1922
  2. pp. 159-174
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  1. PART III: Professional Computers and an Independent Discipline 1930–1964
  2. pp. 175-176
  1. CHAPTER TWELVE: The Best of Bad Times
  2. pp. 177-197
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  1. CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Scientific Relief
  2. pp. 198-219
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  1. CHAPTER FOURTEEN: Tools of the Trade: Machinery 1937
  2. pp. 220-232
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  1. CHAPTER FIFTEEN: Professional Ambition
  2. pp. 233-255
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  1. CHAPTER SIXTEEN: The Midtown New York Glide Bomb Club
  2. pp. 256-275
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  1. CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: The Victor’s Share
  2. pp. 276-297
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  1. CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: I Alone Am Left to Tell Thee
  2. pp. 298-317
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  1. EPILOGUE: Final Passage: Halley’s Comet 1986
  2. pp. 318-322
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  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. 323-324
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  1. Appendix: Recurring Characters, Institutions, and Concepts
  2. pp. 325-332
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  1. Notes
  2. pp. 333-372
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  1. Research Notes and Bibliography
  2. pp. 373-400
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 401-411
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  1. Illustration Credits
  2. pp. 412-412
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Additional Information

ISBN
9781400849369
Related ISBN
9780691133829
MARC Record
OCLC
880236597
Pages
424
Launched on MUSE
2015-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
No
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