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Lake Effects is a history of urban policy making in the large Midwestern industrial city of Cleveland, Ohio. Urban policy making requires goal setting in four critical areas: economic development, urban growth, services, and wealth redistribution. Ronald Weiner shows how urban policy was conceived and implemented by the local governing elites, or regimes, between 1825 and 1929. Each regime—Merchant, Populist, Corporate, and Realty—set policy goals in the four areas; set priorities among the goals; and used their power, public and private, to guide the city toward these ends. Each regime dominated policy making for at least twenty years, and the successes and failures of each regime contribute to our understanding of how Cleveland became the city that it is today. The successes of the Merchant Regime’s economic development policy made Cleveland’s industrialization possible. The urban growth policy of the Corporate Regime built the downtown civic center and University Circle. However, the Populist, Corporate, and Realty regimes’ failures to plan for Cleveland’s economic future helped set in motion the declining economic fortunes so harshly in evidence today, and the triumph of the expansionist Realty Regime’s urban growth policy promoted heedless suburban development at the expense of the central business district and inner city.

Table of Contents

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  1. Cover
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  1. Series Page, Title Page, Copyright Page, Dedication
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  1. Table of Contents
  2. pp. vii-viii
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  1. List of Illustrations
  2. pp. x-xi
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  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. xii-xiii
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  1. Introduction: Regimes and Urban Policy, An Overview
  2. pp. 1-8
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  1. Part 1. The Merchant Regime, 1825-1878
  2. pp. 9-10
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  1. 1. Merchant Regime Urban Policy, 1825-1878
  2. pp. 11-34
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  1. Part 2. The Populist Regime, 1878-1895
  2. pp. 35-36
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  1. 2. Ideals and Policy Making Institutions
  2. pp. 37-47
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  1. 3. Economic Development and Urban Growth Devalued
  2. pp. 48-64
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  1. 4. The Realignment of Policy Priorities
  2. pp. 65-82
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  1. Part 3. The Corporate Regime, 1895-1919
  2. pp. 83-84
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  1. 5. Ideals, Institutions, and Policies
  2. pp. 85-101
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  1. 6. Urban Growth Policy I: Land Use Controls at the Periphery
  2. pp. 102-115
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  1. 7. Urban Growth Policy II: Land Use Controls at the Center
  2. pp. 116-132
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  1. 8. The Professional Ideal Triumphant
  2. pp. 133-150
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  1. Part 4. The Realty Regime, 1919-1929
  2. pp. 151-152
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  1. 9. Origins of the Realty Regime
  2. pp. 153-170
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  1. 10. Getting Down to Business: Economic Development and the Financing of Urban Growth Policy
  2. pp. 171-186
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  1. 11. Land Use Controls in an Era of Changing City Structure
  2. pp. 187-201
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  1. 12. The Balkanized Metropolis: The Realty Regime Victorious
  2. pp. 202-213
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  1. Conclusion: Paths to the Present, A Post Mortem
  2. pp. 214-220
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  1. Appendix A
  2. pp. 221-222
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  1. Appendix B
  2. pp. 223-224
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  1. Methodological Notes
  2. pp. 225-232
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  1. Notes of Chapters
  2. pp. 233-262
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 263-272
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  1. Other Titles in the Series
  2. pp. 273-274
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