In this Book


Why did election monitoring become an international norm? Why do pseudo-democrats-undemocratic leaders who present themselves as democratic-invite international observers, even when they are likely to be caught manipulating elections? Is election observation an effective tool of democracy promotion, or is it simply a way to legitimize electoral autocracies? In The Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma, Susan D. Hyde explains international election monitoring with a new theory of international norm formation. Hyde argues that election observation was initiated by states seeking international support. International benefits tied to democracy give some governments an incentive to signal their commitment to democratization without having to give up power. Invitations to nonpartisan foreigners to monitor elections, and avoiding their criticism, became a widely recognized and imitated signal of a government's purported commitment to democratic elections.

Hyde draws on cross-national data on the global spread of election observation between 1960 and 2006, detailed descriptions of the characteristics of countries that do and do not invite observers, and evidence of three ways that election monitoring is costly to pseudo-democrats: micro-level experimental tests from elections in Armenia and Indonesia showing that observers can deter election-day fraud and otherwise improve the quality of elections; illustrative cases demonstrating that international benefits are contingent on democracy in countries like Haiti, Peru, Togo, and Zimbabwe; and qualitative evidence documenting the escalating game of strategic manipulation among pseudo-democrats, international monitors, and pro-democracy forces.

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page, Copyright
  2. pp. i-vi
  3. open access Download |
  1. Contents
  2. pp. vii-viii
  3. open access Download |
  1. Figures and Tables
  2. pp. ix-x
  3. open access Download |
  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. xi-xvi
  3. open access Download |
  1. Introduction
  2. pp. 1-27
  3. open access Download |
  1. 1. Signaling Democracy and the Norm of Internationally Observed Elections
  2. pp. 28-55
  3. open access Download |
  1. 2. Sovereign Leaders and the Decision to Invite Observers
  2. pp. 56-88
  3. open access Download |
  1. 3. Democracy-Contingent Benefits
  2. pp. 89-125
  3. open access Download |
  1. 4. Does Election Monitoring Matter?
  2. pp. 126-157
  3. open access Download |
  1. 5. The Quality of Monitoring and Strategic Manipulation
  2. pp. 158-184
  3. open access Download |
  1. Conclusion: Constrained Leaders and Changing International Expectations
  2. pp. 185-210
  3. open access Download |
  2. pp. 211-215
  3. open access Download |
  2. pp. 216-224
  3. open access Download |
  2. pp. 225-238
  3. open access Download |
  1. INDEX
  2. pp. 236-246
  3. open access Download |

Additional Information

Related ISBN
MARC Record
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.