Front cover

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Copyright

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Acknowledgments

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p. vii

I thank John W. Thieret of Northern Kentucky University for his careful editing of the entire manuscript and his continued encouragement throughout the many drafts of this book; Charles J. Lapham for his technical assistance in obtaining the scanned images from the 1913 edition of Britton & Brown (see Credits), and arranging the images into an easily accessible, digital format; Pam Bowlin for her dedicated work in the layout of these images and the text into Pagemaker ...

Credits for Line Drawings, Photographs, and Glossary

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pp. viii-ix

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Author's Note

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p. ix

In a work of this magnitude it is not possible to eliminate all errors. The author takes responsibility for any such errors or omissions, including ones in the contributed treatments. Corrections, suggestions, and any other comments from individuals using the book are welcome, and should be directed to the e-mail address given following this note. The keys are a particular area where corrections will likely be needed. They have undergone several years of testing in field botany ...

Contents

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pp. xi-xiii

List of Figures

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p. xiv

List of Tables

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p. xv

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Preface

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p. xvi

Kentucky is widely known for the beauty of its landscapes, from the Appalachian highlands, to the rolling Bluegrass plains, to the lowlands along the Mississippi River. The flora of Kentucky has long been recognized for its richness, having been formed by the intermixing of plant species over millions of years of geologic and climatic change. Through the efforts of many workers over the last two centuries, a great deal of information has now been accumulated on the past and present plant life of the state. Today much is known about what plant species are present, their ...

Kentucky Map

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Family Index

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Part I. Introduction

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Section 1. Overview of This Book

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pp. 2-10

This book provides answers to basic questions about the vascular plant life of Kentucky: What plants occur in the state? How are they identified? What are their scientific and common names? When do they flower? Where do they grow? Are they native or non-native? and Are they common or rare? Family descriptions are provided, as well as notes on toxicity, wildlife and human uses, and other items of interest. Pertinent literature is referenced, especially recent publications and the ...

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Section 2. The Physical Setting of Kentucky

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pp. 11-16

Kentucky was admitted to the Union in 1792, and its current boundaries were established in 1818 with the acquisition of the Jackson Purchase from the Chickasaws (figure 2). These boundaries enclose about 103,000 square kilometers of land and 1,700 square kilometers of water, totaling 104,700 square kilometers (40,411 square miles, or 25.9 million acres). Natural river boundaries (1,376 kilometers or 855 miles of river borders) separate Kentucky from Missouri to the west; ...

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Section 3. Vegetation of Kentucky

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pp. 17-37

At the time of settlement it has been estimated that forests covered about 90–95 percent of Kentucky, with barrens and other open communities occurring on about 5–10 percent of the land (Taylor 1958). This vegetation pattern has changed greatly since settlement, primarily from frequent logging, mining, repeated burning, and grazing. Today Kentucky is about 50 percent forested, and the original barrens have virtually disappeared. ...

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Section 4. Floristic Affinities

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pp. 38-40

According to Thorne (1993), Kentucky falls within two floristic regions, the Appalachian Province Floristic Region, which includes the Appalachian and Interior Low Plateaus, and the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Floristic Province, which encompasses the Mississippi Embayment of western Kentucky. The former region includes most of eastern North America (north of the Coastal Plain), an area that was nearly entirely covered by deciduous forest in presettlement times with numerous ...

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Section 5. Endemics

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p. 41

Endemics are those species restricted to a particular habitat or geographical area. Examples of species endemic to particular habitats in Kentucky are those previously listed for rocky stream banks, cedar glades, the Cumberland Highlands, and rockhouses. Some plants are found only within certain physiographic boundaries (see Little 1970). Table 12 provides a list of the various kinds of endemic species associated with Kentucky and surrounding areas. ...

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Section 6. Conservation Status

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pp. 42-44

There are three levels of protection available for vascular plants in the United States–– international, federal, and state. At the international level, the protection exists through the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). This is an international agreement, now signed by more than one hundred countries, to control the trade of rare plants and animals. With regard to Kentucky plants, this agreement currently affects the export of ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), and members of the Orchidaceae. ...

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Section 7. The Status of Old-growth Forest in Kentucky

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pp. 45-50

Various definitions of “old-growth” forest have been proposed (Duffy & Meier 1992; Held & Winstead 1975; Leverett 1996; and Martin 1992). As opposed to virgin forests, those untouched by humans, old-growth forests may have experienced some past disturbances but have retained most features considered typical of presettlement forests. These forests are usually defined by the presence of the following set of features: many large trees over 200 years old, often producing a basal area of over ...

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Section 8. A History of Plant Conservation in Kentucky

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pp. 51-52

Only in relatively recent times have Kentuckians enacted laws or established practices aimed at protecting our natural resources. Years of coal and timber and wetland exploitation eventually gave way to the realization by citizens and politicians of the degraded condition of much of the Kentucky landscape. Several reports appeared in the 1940s and 1950s that described the need to develop sound policies on developing and safeguarding Kentucky’s natural resources (Briscoe et al. ...

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Section 9. A History of Plant Life in Kentucky

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pp. 53-63

The geologic history of Kentucky has been reviewed by McDowell (1986), McFarlan (1943), and McGrain (1983). Potter (1996) provided an overview of the geology of the northern Kentucky area. The discussion and terminology of continental movements in the following discussion follow those of Stanley (1999). Additional information on geologic history was gathered from the Web page of the Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS 2003). See figure 7 for a geologic map of the state and ...

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Section 10. Potsettlement Changes in the Plant Life of Kentucky

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pp. 64-72

The early European settlers of Kentucky found vast tracts of forest composed of huge trees, open woodlands on the fertile plains and rolling hills, many miles of clean streams, great amounts of mineral resources, and abundant game, so that Kentucky must have truly seemed a “land of opportunity” to the early colonists. The natural resources no doubt seemed endless and inexhaustible, so there was little concern or worry about conservation as the settlers struggled to survive and ...

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Section 11. A History of Floristic Botany in Kentucky

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pp. 73-86

Floristic botany is the branch of science that deals with the occurrence and distribution of plant species in a region. These studies typically involve field surveys, collection of voucher specimens, listing of known species, and description of new species. Formal botanical investigations in Kentucky did not begin until the late eighteenth century, with the studies of the great French botanist Andr

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Section 12. Current Status of Floristic Studies in Kentucky

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pp. 87-89

Many kinds of floristic studies have been conducted in Kentucky over the last two centuries, including studies of natural areas, counties, and multicounty areas. Most of these studies have been published, typically in scientific journals or in books, and several compilations and summaries of the Kentucky botanical literature are available (Browne 1965; Davies 1953; Fuller 1979; Fuller et al. 1989; Meijer 1970; Shacklette 1940, 1941; and Taylor 1995). These papers provide a ...

Literature Cited in Part I

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pp. 91-105

Part II. Taxonomic Treatment

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Introduction to the Keys

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p. 108

For information on the use of these keys, see “Keys” in section 1 of the introduction. Also see table 1 for a list of abbreviations used in part II. In particular, note the following frequently used abbreviations that precede many species names in the species accounts: ...

General Key to Vascular Plants of Kentucky

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pp. 109-148

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1. Pteridophytes of Kentucky

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pp. 149-168

Pteridophytes, also known as ferns and fern allies, are seedless vascular plants. They are of an ancient lineage dating back about 400 million years. Tree ferns, giant lycopods, giant horsetails, and many other now extinct pteridophyte groups dominated the earth’s surface for over 100 million years, until eventually supplanted by the rise of the gymnosperms about 300 million years ago. Their former dominance in Kentucky is still evident by the presence of their leaf impressions in ...

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2. Gymnosperms of Kentucky

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pp. 170-169

The gymnosperms are woody vascular plants that produce naked seeds, often in cones. They therefore lack the characteristic flowers and fruits of angiosperms. Gymnosperms arose about 300 million years ago, becoming dominant during the same period that dinosaurs were the major animal group. Many groups of gymnosperms are now extinct, with only four major lineages (divisions) surviving to the present: Cycadophyta (cycads), Ginkgophyta (maidenhair tree), Gnetophyta (including three ...

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3. Dicotyledonae of Kentucky

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pp. 175-576

The division Magnoliophyta, or angiosperms, comprises about 250,000 species worldwide and is the dominant and most important group of plants on earth, both economically and ecologically. The angiosperms are characterized by the presence of vessels in their xylem, by complex phloem cells (sieve tube elements and companion cells), by flowers with ovaries enclosing seeds, and by ...

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4. Monocotyledonae of Kentucky

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pp. 577-729

The Monocotyledonae are a group of flowering plants composed of about 56,000 species worldwide, characterized by the following features: single cotyledon in the seed, stem vascular bundles scattered, parallel venation in the leaves, and flower parts in 3s. There are many exceptions to these generalizations. Most species are herbaceous, but some of our genera do produce woody ...

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Epilogue

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p. 731

This book is an account of the vascular plant life existing in Kentucky at the beginning of the twenty-first century. It is essentially a snapshot in time. In much earlier times, tropical floras existed in the region, and in glacial times the flora was more boreal. Species assemblages associated with our current temperate deciduous forests have developed only in the last 10,000 ...

Literature Cited in Part II

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pp. 733-742

Appendix I: Glossary

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pp. 743-779

Appendix II: Index of Part I

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pp. 780-786

Appendix III: Index of Scientific Names in Part II

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pp. 787-814

Appendix IV: Index of Common Names in Part II

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pp. 815-833

Appendix V: Index of Popular Books (with Color Photographs) on the flora of the South-Central United States and the Southern Appalachians

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p. 834