Finding Common Barriers and Facilitators for Cervical Cancer Screening in Sexual and Gender Diverse People: An Integrative Review
- Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
- Johns Hopkins University Press
- Volume 34, Number 4, November 2023
- pp. 1157-1177
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Background. Sexual and gender diverse (SGD) people have lower rates of cervical cancer screening than cisgender, heterosexual people, putting them at greater risk for disease. Few, if any, studies have examined facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening common to all subgroups of SGD people with a cervix. Methods. An integrative review regarding cervical cancer screening by SGD people was conducted using Whittemore and Knafl's framework. The National Institutes of Health's Sexual and Gender Minorities Health Disparities Research Framework was used to interpret the findings. An electronic database search identified 17 peer-reviewed articles for inclusion. Results. Quantitative and qualitative studies and reviews took various approaches. Barriers common to all subgroups exist at the personal, interpersonal, community, and societal levels, including lack of insurance, lack of primary care provider, poor provider communication, discrimination, and insufficient provider education. Conclusion. Identification of common barriers and facilitators can be used to enhance educational curricula and intervention development to increase cervical cancer screening among SGD people.