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  • Abstracts

To develop the following abstracts, the editorial staff searches more than 100 scientific journals, professional and organizational newsletters, conference proceedings, and other resources for information relevant to ecological restoration practice and research. Please send suggested abstract sources to the editorial staff (ERjournal@sebs.rutgers.edu).

Climate Change

Water-Table-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimates Guide Peatland Restoration at National Scale. 2023. Koch, J. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Department of Hydrology, Copenhagen, Denmark, juko@geus.dk), L. Elsgaard, M.H. Greve, S. Gyldenkærne, C. Hermansen, G. Levin, S. Wu and S. Stisen. Biogeosciences 20:2387–2403.

Due to their massive carbon storage potential, protection and restoration of peatlands is an essential facet of climate change mitigation. Over the last few centuries, peatlands have faced degradation that has transformed many of them from carbon sinks into carbon sources. Globally, drained peatlands now account for 10% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use, land use change and forestry. Water table depth (WTD) can be used as a tool for prioritizing peatland restoration as it has a functional relationship with carbon and methane emissions. Koch et al. developed a high-resolution WTD map of peatlands across Denmark and established a national GHG emission estimate for peat soils, finding that annual emissions were 15% lower than previously estimated. The authors also examined restoration scenarios to prioritize areas for re-wetting. The substantial climate mitigation potential of peatlands makes targeted management and restoration of these areas essential.

Potential Role of Seaweeds in Climate Change Mitigation. 2023. Ross, F.W.R. (Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia, fwross@deakin.edu.au), P.W. Boyd, K. Filbee-Dexter, K. Watanabe, A. Ortega, D. Krause-Jensen, C. Lovelock, C.F.A. Sondak, L.T. Bach, C.M. Duarte, O. Serrano, J. Beardall, P. Tarbuck and P.I. Macreadie. Science of the Total Environment 885:163699. doi:10.1016/tj.scitotenv.2023.163699

Oceans account for half of all global CO2 fixation so management of blue carbon presents an opportunity to increase oceanic absorption of atmospheric carbon. Seaweed has been suggested as a vast source of potential climate change mitigation but the question of whether this can be done at a meaningful scale remains. Here, the authors review current research surrounding seaweed's role in reducing climate change and identify challenges to this process. Four pathways have been identified for seaweed's contribution to climate resilience: restoring wild seaweed ecosystems, expanding sustainable aquaculture, offsetting carbon emissions, and sinking seaweed into the deep ocean to sequester carbon. Challenges include quantifying seaweed's impact on atmospheric CO2, scalability of near-shore farming, calculating emissions abatement potential of taxa such as Asparagopsis spp. that show promise for reducing livestock-derived methane and ecological concerns surrounding sinking seaweed into the deep ocean. Despite these challenges, seaweed provides myriad ecosystem services and the authors recommend that seaweed aquaculture should be incorporated into the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

Coastal & Marine Communities

Floristic Composition and Carbon Stock Estimation Under Restored Mangrove Area in Bagan Serdang, North Sumatra, Indonesia. 2023. Harefa, M.S., Z. Nasution, E. Tuhono and A. Susilowati (Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Sumatera Utara. North Sumatra, Indonesia, arida.susilowati@usu.ac.id). Biodiversitas 24:2037–2044. doi:10.13057/biodiv/d240413

Mangrove forests are carbon-rich systems that store significant amounts of carbon, acting as sinks for greenhouse gases and providing ecosystem services such as food provisioning, storm buffering, and water quality improvement. Mangroves have experienced upwards of 90% declines due to urbanization, agriculture, coastal contamination, deforestation and various other factors. To alleviate degradation, monoculture restorations with Avicennia marina (gray mangrove) have been implemented in several places, but few studies have assessed carbon storage and biodiversity of these restored areas. Harefa et al. calculated Shannon Wiener diversity and mangrove biomass at restored A. marina sites in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Seven years [End Page 236] post-restoration, sites were still dominated by A. marina, with most trees having reached the adult stage. The authors also calculated total CO2 absorption and carbon storage for the restored areas.

Recovery of Planktonic Invertebrate Communities in Restored and Created Tidal Marshes along...

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