This article compares receipt of dibao social assistance in rural and urban areas of China using household data from seven province-level units. The probability of dibao receipt is positively related to the number of persons in the household who are older, adults who do not work and to the possibility that the head of household is in poor health. Means testing based on household income is more stringent in urban areas while low household wealth is a more important factor of dibao receipt in rural areas. In rural China, membership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) increases the probability of dibao receipt. A larger proportion of ethnic minority households than majority households receive dibao.