- Purchase/rental options available:
Projects of intelligently designed social change in early twentieth-century Europe were challenged by routine dynamics of complex adaptive systems such as uncertainty, emergence, nonlinearity, metastability, sensitivity to initial conditions, interdependence, and resilience. Marxist revolutionaries including Kautsky, Bernstein, Lenin, Sorel, and Lukács experimented with a range of strategies to manage complexity with flexible practices and simplifying concepts like capitalism, consciousness, class struggle, the masses, the party, and totality. With his theory of hegemony, Gramsci engaged with complexity more directly and unmanageably. These theorists read as adaptations in an evolutionary dynamic, explorations of the solution space when the question of change is urgent and blocked by the problem of complexity.