Abstract

Abstract:

The rise of the Red Power movement, a burgeoning nationwide tourism boom, and growing public concerns over conservation and the environment collided in postwar America. In Wisconsin, governor turned senator Gaylord Nelson—the driving force behind the creation of Earth Day—hoped to seize lands belonging to the Bad River and Red Cliff bands of Ojibwe for incorporation in the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore. Nelson aimed to do this through "stealth termination," which would add Ojibwe lands and resources to the lakeshore without putting the financial burden of termination on the state of Wisconsin. Drawing on family history and congressional testimony, this article highlights how Native people in the mid-twentieth century resisted attempts to usurp their lands, eradicate their treaty-guaranteed rights, and undermine their sovereignty. For the Red Cliff band, the ultimate refutation of Nelson's attempt at stealth termination is the continued reclamation of tribal lands. These efforts have led to the 2012 creation and 2017 expansion of Frog Bay Tribal National Park, which underscores this legacy of Indigenous environmental activism and sovereignty.

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Additional Information

ISSN
2332-127X
Print ISSN
2332-1261
Pages
pp. 29-61
Launched on MUSE
2021-09-03
Open Access
No
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