This article is a continuation of investigations into the origin of East Polynesian languages in the Central Northern Outliers (Luangiua, Nukumanu, Takuu, Nukeria), rather than in Central Western Polynesia. Proto-East Polynesian is proposed as developing in an area bounded by the Phoenix, Line, and Marquesas Islands. Two major dialects of Proto-East Polynesian are reconstructed. Proto-East Polynesian Distal and Proto-East Polynesian Proximal. Proto-East Polynesian Distal is proposed as spoken distant from the Outliers in the Marquesas. East Polynesian Distal splits into Marquesan and Far Eastern Polynesian. Proto-Far Eastern Polynesia is proposed as spoken in Mangareva after settlement there from the Marquesas. Proto-Far Eastern Polynesian then splits into Mangarevan and Rapa Nui. The other major dialect of Proto-East Polynesian is Proto-East Polynesian Proximal, "proximal" because it is proposed as spoken in an area located closer to the Outliers than that where Proto-East Polynesian Distal was spoken. Proto East Polynesian Proximal is reconstructed with two subdialects, a Northern subdialect, Proto-East Polynesian Proximal (Northern), ancestral to Hawaiian, and a Southern subdialect Proto-East Polynesian Proximal (Southern), ancestral to the remaining East Polynesian languages. Proto-East Polynesian and later Proto-East Polynesian Proximal were likely initially spoken within the bounds of the Phoenix and Line Islands. The proposal for a large west to east Proto-East Polynesian homeland and the division of Proto-East Polynesian into three communalects that provided three migration streams out of that homeland contests the most commonly accepted ideas regarding the settlement of East Polynesia.


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pp. 36-71
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