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5. conquered. In the late Ch'ing the Chinese peasantry still lived at a level of subsistence agriculture, but after modernization began, we still have to ask why development was so slow? This really is too large a question to be answered by undertaking a systematic investigation of the available facts. Topics such as agricultural improvement, 'modern industry and traditional handicrafts, and commercialization are all within the sphere of our discussion. In treating social chang~, we make use of the variables suggested by the political scientists Karl Deutsch: exposure to different facets of modern life, use of mass media, frequency of changes in residence, rate of urbanization, nonagricultural population, literacy rate and per capita income. But because of the limitations of source materials, our survey has many gaps. It is worthwhile to mention here that as we were doing our survey of social change, we developed some technical skill at overcoming these problems. To construct the percentage of literate population, for instance, we used 1905 as the watershed between two epochs. Befo_re 1905 education was almost exclusively traditional in form, and the literacy rate was low. But even after the beginning of modern education in 1905, the opportunities for children to go to school did not dramatically increase because the country was too poor to offer universal education. This limited literacy slowed the full range of China's modern development. -[From 1973 to 1976 the project was jointly directed by Chang P' eng-yUan Sl PJf.} (IJ and Li Kuo-ch '1 j: (~ ~'f . Ten draft volumes on the period 1860-1916 were completed. In February, 1977, Chang YU-fa ~~ ~ ~ became the director of the project and ten more volumes of comparative topical studies are currently under way. When they are completed, a final ten volumes of regional studies on the 19171937 period are planned to complete the project. The publication of research from this project has appeared so far only in article form and can be found under the ten authors' names in the following two journals: 1. Chung-yang yan-chiu yuan: chin-tai shih yan-chiu so ch'i-k'an (Bulletin of the Institute of Modern History Academia Sinica). 2. Li-shih hsUeh-pao (Bulletin of Historical Research). Issued by the Graduate Institute of History and the Department of History, National Taiwan Normal University;] * * * REGIONAL MODERNIZATION IN CHINA: REGIONAL COMPARISONS Chang YU-fa, Academia Sinica, Taiwan [The sections below are extracted from a longer paper delivered at the Association for Asian Studies convention in Los Angeles, April, 1979J This paper is not based on individual research alone; rather it abstracts from the research reports of the joint project. I hereby express my gratitude to my colleagues. POLITICAL MODERNIZATION Institutional Changes According to the structure of the Ch'ing administration, the viceroys and the governors were the highest-ranking officials in the provinces. Originally, the 6. provincial government consisted of three main sections, the Civil Section, the Judicial Section, and the Educational Section. The three sections were modernized in 1907, when new provincial institutions regulated by the Central Government were begun in Fengtien, Chihli and Kiangsu provinces. For example, all sections of the provincial government were staffed by regular officials instead of private secretaries. Simultaneously, a police bureau was established in the provincial governments. Several provinces, such as Kiangsu and Shantung, tried to set up police forces during the years 1900-1907, but no province experienced as much progress as did Chihli under the viceroyship of Yuan Shih-k'ai. After 1907, all other provinces, taking Chihli as a model, established their own police force. Generally speaking, coastal provinces like Fengtien, Chihli, and Kiangsu had good police forces, because they contained important treaty ports from which a portion of the commercial profits could be obtained to maintain a sufficient police force, while hinterland provinces like Hunan, Hupei and Szechwan were financially unable to keep pace with the coastal provinces. Judicial affairs were, in old times, supervised by the administrative officials. The 1907 reform program originated from Western political models, and tried to make administrative , legislative and judicial power independent of one another. With this in mind, the reformers constituted a tri-level judicial system in each province...


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