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-12;.. of the 'war that "'ill answer definitively the question of how much the Nationalist and co:r.-unist forces respectively contributed to the resistance against the Japanese, or onl'' sll 0 ;htly les~er importance are the problems of Nationalist efforts to contain the co:~~ists during the war; of recruiting policies; of supply problems; of officers' tre~t~r.t of the common soldiers; of how social values affected the army's fighting ~;>aci ty (L, Rosinoer remarked that "The greatest obstacle to efficienc~ in the K"omintang ar:r.ies is the concept of class privilege among the officers"). And there are the f~rther problems of the relations between the army and the common people; milit .1ry involvcm.•nt with s:ru;;:,;;Jing to and from the "enemy" territories, and command problems within th'nt and the Economy, Already during the Nanking period, the regime had evir.cP.' a tendency to intervene in ;nd where possible to assume control of important seu::d this rol~ ::n the economy? \/hat happened to private capitalists? How had the ·.-e:-ioLOs factions in the regime lined up on the issues of government monopolies, aF~ro?riation of Japanese-owned industries, bank control, etc? Incidentally, I question that all this governmental involvement in the econo~ acds up to what so~e critics, and particularly the communists, have delighted in calling "bureaucratic capitalism." There is, admittedly, a problem of definition involv~d t.ere, rut of all the PCOll>mic W1its that communhts in 1948 described as beln~ controlled by bureaucratic capitalism, 90 percent were government-controlled, 'and cnly 10 percent were o..lned privately by so-called bureaucratic capitalists, Fer+,aFs the term "state capitalism" would therefore be more appropriate? Lloyd E, Eastman University of Illinois, Champaign-Urban& * * • I. C!-.a.nges in the rural scene, 1937-1949? How did the various rural cla.asea fare during the war? Were their absolute condi iion and relative position 110re or -13less as they had been d~ring the Nanking decade or did accelerated and widespread social changes occur in the villages of southvestern China as a result of the war? The question concerns both masses and elites, A. Masses --What were the effects of inflation, of the conscription and requisition of labor, of compulsory purchases of grain and collection of the land tax in kind, and of the sudden influx of refugees on the various rural clasees? Was there r, growing dcJWmd in food prorluctn or did the exodus of soldiers out of Szechwan province compensate for the supplementary mouths~ How seriously did the labor shortage impede the agricultural vork and in what proportion did it raise not only the nominal wages, but also the buying power of the agricultural laborers? Was there also a serious lack of tenants and were the tenants able to negotiate somewhat better contracts with their landlords? Did many debtors benefit from the inflation? On the other hand, did interest rates become even worse than the pre-war rates and did credit become less and lees available in the rural areas? Were many farmers, in addition to landlords and a few rich peasants, able to hoard rice and other rare foorl products and sell them later at higher JOel :es? In one issue of a war-time monthly devilted to· rura1 problems, two dian,etrically conflictir.g opinions were held, According to one ob•a~er, most farmers tad benefited from wartime conditions and high agricultural prVces between 1939 and 1942. '!'enanb themselvea were said to have hoarded grain and rRised their buying-powtr, which e~bled acme of them to acquire land and become independent owners, (Wu Hsueh-i, "Ssu-ch'uan t' ien-fu chenr,-kou shih-IIU wen-t'i" -- Problem of the collection of the land tax in kind in Szechwan,-- ChunP,'-kuo nun.o:-min :dleh-k'an, II, 1 (1942?), pp. ll-18.) observer contended that only in Szechwan .province had the price of rice risen fastkr than nor.-agricul tural prices between 1939 and 1942 and. that the l; n•'lords alone profited from hoarding and speculation. While the latter were busy buying additional...


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