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!·•npco Ronuhlican Studies Newsletter (d11or; Hrrm•n Mui 111. Orpl. ol H"lory. Univc,.,1y ol Connrc11cu1. Sloru. Cl. 06l68 JI. · ·~ Ad~t1ory and Contribut1ne [diloriMI Boud. llo't'd E.ulm.11n. ldw11rd f11tdm1n. John hr~el. J1mC"1 Shrri,~n. L)'.Gi~n}~~~~'\, _________v_o_l_u_m_e_1_1__ Numh~r 2 Fchruary, 1972.Jj_~~~F:ii~. -,. /i j CF,;N;! · ., t1rall\·. 0nc- thinks of Confu'rius' "c:r Tl1p,dtwrness" and 11 Sm.i 1 l Tr.:.11hi(1t'.ll\1 t\t\'1 of TOnnil's' 11 \.t.>riu:inschaft" .and "C.l'.sellsch~1ft ,"of C1hhon's notions of r: nnit1·· ·-end civilizc·d, kt"df 1£·ld's fi' nnd 1 ltt1e tr;iditiomt, .-ind t>vervhody 1 s 11 ml1dt•rn1 ' i\1.d "Lraditional. 11 Underlytnf, tlit· Ut·i.aern-dertvt·d not inns at }t"at.t is the;· .Jichntu.~..,- of 1:-al and urban HOCft•tv. For somt~ purpoi-:; ""e not sf'e it more often in the texts?" CC'rtainlv the Chint·sc· Communists hav~· t.ecn ;1l pain~ t11 deal with rural-urban differences since the nineteen-fifties, but for ct•rtain 11~lyt .• al purposl's the historian's realm of disrourst• may be more usefully- orien1 .·J in co1 ttnuities over time and networks over space. . ms ,-,1 In his very significant rec:ent monor,rapli (~£!.!>_rm and Rt·vnlution i::...l!!."~'°'' • .lns1 •• E:'">herick ·has sug~ested that urhanization of the p.entry oveT the- courst• 01 lilt in•rl·riril h1c;tory ti"'sulted in the elite's progressive aliE::-nation from the affairs 11f Ll1• c~ :lntryside (pp. 66-67). Now there is a laqz,e body of evidence to sug~':':- t th Lhis pr0cess may, in fact, have been takinfi?; place, but there is alsQ a ratheor subsl .nlial hP1l\• ol evidence to suggest the contrarv. Esherick himself, writin~ In dnother context adduc~s the Brirfsh ~.J11bul 111 Chat. as savJ.n,:. of the 1909 Provincial Assembly 111cmbershi~i that "the majoritv ~1avt> 11t·ver crossed the borders of Hunan, and for some the presenc occasion ts the I irst visit t • Changsha" (p. 101). Hanv teachers in Chan~sha during the 1920s (my informant '~Taiwan said "all") \Jere heirs or otherwise owned }dnd in the countrvside. Mao Zc-dont-:, h1tn!>-• 'f. by inheritance after 1919, was a landlord of some 6uhstance for a whilt, and he full1llPd a traditional patron role by helping Shaoshan kinsmen (notably Hao Fu-xuan, but probthlv oth~rs as well) to get an education in the provincial capital. * Excerpted from 11 .Urban elites. af:,ricultural crisis and relatE>d matters: a prolegom..•tu to the study of the peasant movement in Hun~n. 11 a _paper prepared for the Seminar on Chinese Urban Centers in an A12-,rarian Cof!text, sponsored bv the Social Science Research C0·111cil 1 llniversity of Chicago, August 23-27. 1976. Thanks are due to Susan Hann Jones, Philip Kuhn. Tom and [velvn Re~ski, and otheT participants for their cor.1T1ents. i I ...-n M;1n'1. 11 Ht·1H1rl un ;u1 luvo·:iliJ', 011 of llw 1'4«1 1:.uat Movf•1111·11L 111 tl110~1n 0 11 wrJll:t•n j 111 J'o·bruary, 19"1.}, thrOWH ,..;omc c.louht on Cht• notjon t)1al Lia· process. or elll(' i· "1 1-. 11d za t 1on had prf'J: rcfifH~d Vf' ry f i\ r in Huna11 h•· fur,. l ti~· aJVl!ll t of m11sR pt.·ilsau t·Jllzation. "].!.! _t_l~~ fart• .'21 !.!L'~ ~~-t- !!.;'-a;oc1:!_U1.:_i& ~:£end prcRau~, the lop j !w al rvrants and rvi l gentry have flt•d Lo Shangh11i, those of the second rank to llankoul tnose of the third to Clumgsha and th tl1r artic~latJo_n, if anv. hetwt-en these institutions and tlw social bases of the warlords and other political devclnpmcnts? Unlrss ~e can continue vJ~orouslv to build surcetisive approximutJons in answering; questions s~ch as these, wt· will be unable to break ouc of the well-worn 11 WhJp,gish11 historical highway that ]eads from the Opium War to 1911 and Liberation with teleologi tedtum...


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