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1. Jmmanuel Wallerstein, 11 The HifiC 11r1d Fulure Ocmi~H· of Ll"u..· World Ci.qdt.lli~t ti·m, 11 Cornpara~_! S_tudi~s in Soc:l(~d_IUHtory, 16:4 (Septt'mb~r. 1974). IJ ·ralein usel:i the concept of £:enter, 1a·mJ-pt:r:iphery, und perJphPry in analytds ol 1·;11i:tl sysLems. 2. Ralf Dahrendorf, ClasR and Class Conflict in Industrial Society (Stanford, 1959), pp. 183-189. 3. Jermyn Lynn, Social' Life of the Chinese (1928), p. 34. 4. Yen Ching-yueh, "Crime in Relation to Social Change in China" (unpublished Ph.D. dis•ertation, University of Chicago, 1934), p. 86. -' life ~~ou~~~ ::::~l~~t:0 :0 w~~~s;~~:~ :~n::~~(~~i:~: ~~ep~~~~~ ~~a~~:J~;2~!ti~co~~:~: WJfi a women'fi bank, t"mplo}'lnent as clcrk.s Jn a d1°fpartment store for the fir&t timr, newspapers run by women, and finally evt-n an unemployment office for wnmn.1 wlu:'rf' th1· two requirements were natural feet and lit~racy. Women also appear as bnnditH and served as part of a smug~ling operation tliat boot]e~Red untaxed spirits tnto Peking trom stills in the countrysid hf't-n •wnerally ncceptt'd as the Borodin drafc, including tia· provJ!-.Jon, "111r. oll1tr, of Sun Yat-sen's vttoing power over the decie1ons of the NatJnnal t'arty Congrt·ss and thl! Central Executive Committt.·c·. Ho\Jevt;or, the discovery of the tr~11slat~on of the or1~1nn1 draft indicates the existence of two versio2s 1 ~itl1 the final vt·rsion varvJng in ~ev~ral ~t~nificant nspecl~ frl1m the ortRinal draft. It ts suhmltt~Jr~ her top. On this basic concept the two version~ do not differ. IJ'hat mPrits our atlentic1n are the following additions and modifications. introduced into the final version o( the Constitut1on adopted by the First Nattona] Party Congress: (]) Tli~ addition of a Preamble stating th.11 the Congress adopcs the Constitution "Jn oTdcr to promote. both the realization of tht' Three People'& Principles and the five-Power Constitution"; (2) Ll1~ dt.·sJ~naLion of Sun Yat-sen as th(· J'Jrty's ~u2!.B.:.!.!_ (dirtctor-~eneral) with the power of veto oveT tht• decisions of hoth thl· National' Party Congrt-ss and the Central txecutive Commitr,..t'; (3) the addition of a s1:.·ctton ftxint!, the tenns of office of party officials (on of thl· r.enlral. Provinc-:la], Councv, and Difitrict Committcc.:s dil'1 vf Supervisory Committees; six months for menbcrs ot the Sub-District Executive Committees)~ (4) authority given the Central Ex,..rutiv~ Committee to esta.hlish Party organizations Jn Special Areas, municipalities, and towns; and e-) tla• appending Of a slatemc~nt F-:fVinp. the authorilv of interpreting the C0nstituthrn co the PaTty 1 s !'highest headquarters" (~ Tans-p~). The strong anti-Co~unist bia~ in these provisions can be easily detected. The addition of the Preamble served notice to al] concerned that the ideological foundation .~f the Kuomintang, the reorg.:inization notwithstanding, was to remain Sun Yat-sen's Three People's Principles and the five-Po~er Constitution he designed for a national government, and that this was to be g:uaranteed through constitutional sanction. Tht! designation of Sun Yat-sen as the Party's tsung-1i without election (the tsung-li was to be"elected by the National Party Congress according to the original version), and the investment in him of the extraordinary vetoing powers over the decisions of both the National Party Congress and the Central Executive Committee, made him the absolute ruler, of the Party. (The original version merely provides that the tsung-li shall be the I ChairmaTI of the Central Executive Committee.) 1llis change was apparently deemed nece 1 ssaKry in 1 the contebxt of thef 1 prdeva 5 i!iyng anti-Co 1 mm 1 unhist sentiments among many 1 of th~ !~ sea or uorn nt.ang mem ers to a or un at-sen a . t e necessary constitutiona means t4ti deal with rhe perceived Corwnunist threat to the Kuomintan!!. Jn the same context. tt.e setting of fixed terms of office for ?arty offic.ials and...


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