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This article demonstrates how Margaret Cavendish’s The Convent of Pleasure critiques early modern experimental science based upon her engagement with contemporary philosophical and religious thought. In addition to its pointed critiques of early modern marriage, The Convent of Pleasure explores the epistemological foundations of scientific knowledge and religious belief. The play’s dissonant ending, which includes the dissolution of Lady Happy’s voluntary religious society, dramatizes Cavendish’s rejection of imitative study in favor of imaginative creation. By considering The Convent of Pleasure in conversation with contemporary texts, including John Locke’s A Letter concerning Toleration, this article shows how Cavendish’s work reflects contemporary debates about early modern science and religious toleration.