In Warring States cosmological texts, the two characters heng (constancy) and ji (ultimate) are identical in structure and used interchangeably, both of which refer to the Pole Star/North Pole that the ancient Chinese believed to be the only constant thing and locate in the highest place in the cosmos. The Primordium of Constancy/Ultimate, as much as its synonyms One/Grand One, Grand Constancy/Ultimate, and Dao, is described as a constant root space-time continuum that impregnates with infinite potentiality and vitality, from which spontaneously arises the cosmos and proliferates the myriad things. After the generative completion of the macrocosm, this root space-time continues to function as the cosmic pivot guiding the universe to circulate around it, as the inexhaustible source of the ceaseless regeneration of the myriad things, and as the eternal spiritual homeland where humans can return.


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pp. 1-20
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