The official historiography of French republican education has suppressed the pedagogical contribution of the Paris Commune, which was both denied and separated from socialist education and from school projects of the labor movement that prepared it. To bury this historical sequence, a historiographic cliché presented the laws required by Jules Ferry as the (only) matrix of the creation of a republican education supposed to free children from unequal education. Yet, the first and radical republican secularization of school education came from the work of the Paris Commune, from the programmatic request submitted on April 1, 1871 to the new Parisian elected representatives by the Society «L'Éducation Nouvelle». This article presents some aspects of this republican and socialist project and argues for the rediscovery of the overall project and its major concepts («la démopédie», « l'éducation intégrale », « la méthode syndicale et « l'école-atelier »). (In French)