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CLA JOURNAL 109 108 CLA JOURNAL Marlene D. Allen ---. Blood Colony. Atria Books, 2008. Kindle file. ---. My Soul to Take. Washington Square Press, 2011. Kindle file. Flagel, Nadine.“‘It’s Almost Like Being There’”: Speculative Fiction, Slave Narrative, and the Crisis of Representation in Octavia Butler’s Kindred.” Canadian Review of American Studies, vol. 42, no. 2, 2012, pp. 216-245. Geder, Ken. Reading the Vampire. Routledge, 1994. Hopkins, Pauline. Of One Blood. Washington Square Press, 2004. Kindle file. Morris, Susana M.“Black Girls Are from the Future: Afrofuturist Feminism in Octavia E. Butler’s Fledgling.” Women’s Studies Quarterly, vol. 40, no. 3/4, 2012, pp. 146-166. Nelson, Alondra. Introduction: Future Texts. Social Text 71, vol. 20, 2002, pp. 1-15. Pickens, Theri.“‘You’re Supposed to Be a Tall, Handsome, Fully Grown White Man.’” Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, vol. 8, no. 1, Jan. 2014, pp. 33-48. Reid, Mandy A.“Utopia Is in the Blood: The Bodily Utopias of Martin R. Delany and Pauline Hopkins.” Utopian Studies, vol. 22, no. 1, 2011, pp. 91-103. Robey, Molly K.“Excavating Ethiopia: Biblical Archaeology in Pauline Hopkins’s Of One Blood.” Studies in American Fiction, vol. 43, no. 2, 2016, pp. 183-206. Robinson, Timothy M.“Octavia Butler’s Fledgling as a Transnational Neo-Slave Narrative.” Vampires and Zombies: Transcultural Migrations and Transnational Interpretations, edited by Dorothea Fischer-Hornung and Monika Mueller, UP of Mississippi, 2016, pp. 61-82. Strong, Melissa J.“The Limits of Newness: Hybridity in Octavia E. Butler’s Fledgling.” Femspec, vol. 11, no. 1, 2010, pp. 27-43. Salvant, Shawn.“Pauline Hopkins and the End of Incest.” African American Review, vol. 42, no. 3/4, 2008, pp. 659-677. Washington, Harriet. Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. Harlem Moon Broadway Books, 2006. Williams, Nathaniel.“Reconstructing Biblical History: Garrett Serviss, Pauline Hopkins, and Technocratic Exploration Novels.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts, vol. 34, no. 4, 2012, pp. 323340 . Womack, Ytasha L. Afrofuturism: The World of Black Sci-fi and Fantasy Culture. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2013. Luminous Inspirations and Modernity in the Streets: Revolutions in Politics, Culture, and Society in Paris1 Ima L. Hicks Learning a foreign language opens access to the cultures that speak it and embodies cultural acts. As a non-native teacher of French as a foreign language, I am aware that acquiring, maintaining, and increasing cultural knowledge of a target culture can present significant issues if one considers the allimportant part that is termed perspectives—the underpinnings of cultural artifacts and behaviors—which are arguably the most salient, albeit the most challenging, portion of language instruction and understanding. Using an interpretive approach, I explore in this paper how the cultural representations present in the city of Paris afforded me an opportunity to analyze and to discuss a range of issues that are at the forefront of the recent – and seemingly perennial – debate in France on national culture. Not to conflate Paris with France, I discuss my relationship to the city as a participant in a short-term study abroad program during which the notion of perspective proved to be vital for my understanding of the people and things that claim a place in the Parisian landscape. The specific aim of this paper is, however, not to philosophize about the difference between perception and reality, nor to wax poetic about what/who is (and/or what/who is not) French. It is more modest. As will soon become evident, access to knowledge and the command thereof are at the core of this inquiry, as is the need to take ownership of one’s knowledge to find truth. There is the stereotypic optic of the Paris of champagne, the illuminated Eiffel Tower at night, and misty walks along the Seine; and there is the other Paris—the one that comes only through exploring the city’s past and present through the stories of its diverse inhabitants. Paris is a city that represents la Francophonie in important ways. For example, Paris is a place where metropolitan French is in contact with other varieties of French (as well as other languages) and where Parisians engage...


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