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This essay compares recent studies of slavery and capitalism, their critical reception, and the social, cultural, and political context of their appearance in the early 2010s with the appearance and reception of similar studies in the 1970s. The recent histories largely ignored the earlier era, critics rightly pointed out. However, critics overlooked or misunderstood much that was new in the recent studies. In particular, critics trained as economists and working in economics departments seemed unaware of how historical research and writing had changed since the 1970s, largely because of postmodern interventions since then. In the 1970s, the use of computerized research and statistics, pioneered by trained economists, was highly controversial among traditional historians. Similarly, the use of language, narrative, and “facts” by recent historians is controversial, particularly among traditional economists and economic historians.