A diverse and well-trained, distributed and resourced primary care workforce is essential for advancing health equity. However, few standardized models exist to guide health care professions education (HCPE) on core competencies regarding understanding and effectively addressing social determinants of health, social injustice, structural barriers, and the high burden of health needs in marginalized populations. We propose a framework with domains of policies and incentives, enabling institutional climate, educational content and integration, and community-orientation and community engagement. The framework encompasses inter-disciplinary team-based care and immersive community experiences to equip learners with cognitive skills and knowledge needed to understand and address unmet needs and ensure equitable access to the entire continuum of care. Research is needed to understand barriers and promoters of a health equity-guided HCPE, and standards for theory-driven curricular contents and metrics to evaluate and track progress. Multisector collaborations and demonstration projects may help guide standardized training on advancing health equity.