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This paper investigates negative attitudes toward vaccines in Italy, where anti-vaccination movements have gained significant momentum in recent years. Considering the substantial health risk to herd immunity the issue poses, particularly after the sudden outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, it has become increasingly urgent to study the prevalence and diffusion of anti-vaccination beliefs. Using data from the 2016 European Social Survey's (ESS) country specific questions for Italy, the prevalence of anti-vaccination attitudes is examined along with how they are influenced by demographic, attitudinal and value-oriented determinants. The results show that 15 percent of the Italian public strictly hold negative views toward vaccination, and the prevalence of anti-vaccination attitudes is most commonly found among those who are less educated and aged between 25 and 34. While religiosity and political conservatism do not have an effect on anti-vaccination beliefs, our results indicate a strong positive link between anti-vaccination attitudes and distrust in the country's health-care systems and political institutions.