Abstract

Abstract:

From the "Noble Experiment" of baseball player Jackie Robinson to the national anthem protests initiated by football player Colin Kaepernick, the manner in which African American athletes have responded to demands that they demonstrate their patriotism has been critiqued and regulated at every turn. This article seeks to chronicle that history, by exploring the experiences not only of Robinson and Kaepernick but all African Americans who, throughout the history of sport, have challenged preconceived notions and displays of patriotism. This includes boxer Muhammad Ali and sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos, among several lesser-known figures. What is remarkable is the connective tissue, the degree to which the activism of athletes from Robinson to Kaepernick, and the reactions to it, has not fundamentally altered in seven decades.

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Additional Information

ISSN
2155-8450
Print ISSN
0094-1700
Pages
pp. 111-127
Launched on MUSE
2020-09-29
Open Access
No
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