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This conceptual-theoretical article explains how the concepts of recovery and citizenship may be linked and how they are now applied toward mental health and addictions in Norway. Although the biomedical model remains dominant in the Norwegian health care system, other approaches have emerged during the last decade, particularly regarding the treatment and understanding of mental health and addiction. Various areas of research and service development have applied the concept of recovery to these fields, but the concept of citizenship therein is comparatively scarce. In a Norwegian context, it is more common to refer to social recovery than to citizenship. Like the framework of citizenship, perspectives on social recovery call for a recognition of what life circumstances mean for health and well-being, and place social justice issues on the agenda. Introducing the concept of citizenship can therefore usefully boost the emphasis on civil rights and social justice that is typically downplayed when viewing recovery in a clinical or strictly personal manner. Frameworks and approaches to citizenship that have been developed in the United States can be important resources in initiating citizenship-based practices in Norway.