Following the color revolutions, many post-Soviet countries increased the regulatory barriers for non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Given their numerous commonalities, why did Belarus and Russia pass legislation that raised such barriers while Armenia ultimately did not? Authoritarian learning is an important factor in all three cases but cannot alone explain this variation. Rather, a country’s willingness to enact restrictive legislation also depends on its authorities’ perception of both the level of politicization of NGOs and U.S. foreign policy toward regime change in the country. Restrictive NGO legislation is also influenced by the costs that passing such legislation would impose in the form of domestic or international pressure.