This paper examines two manuscript ritual manuals titled Hwaŏm yemun (華嚴禮文) from the late Chosŏn period preserved in the Old Books Collection of the Dongguk University Library. The first is dated to 1767 with the name Pak Chinhae 朴震海 on the cover, and the second was assembled by an unknown hand in 1891. The differences between the texts suggest the evolution and amplification of Hwaŏm-oriented liturgy in late premodern Korea. By examining the structures of and the ritual procedures delineated in these two documents, scholars gain a clearer picture of how the Avataṃ saka-sūtra was worshipped in Korean Buddhism as the capstone or culmination of the monastic curriculum for Sŏn monks. In addition, these texts further our understanding of how ritual functioned as a means of articulating doctrinal and devotional classifications, as a procedure for reinforcing mainstream Mahāyāna doctrines and aspirations, and as a malleable framework for making of vows and invocations, performing penance, and chanting efficacious spells.


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