Abstract

Abstract:

This essay searches for the theoretical underpinnings of oath-making between deities and human masters found in Daoist practice in today’s Hunan province. It shows that the practice of deities concluding oaths with masters was grounded in the cosmological and theological vision of Divine Empyrean (Shenxiao 神霄) theorists Wang Wenqing 王文卿 (1093–1153) and Bai Yuchan 白玉蟾 (fl. 1194–1229?). They developed an elegant view of the Divine Empyrean cosmos as founded on oaths made by high celestial gods to one another, which included humiliating maledictions for failure to comply with their sworn commitments. Based on this paradigm, human masters and thunder deities concluded oaths in which they entered into collaborative relationships that accounted for the ritual efficacy of thunder rites. The harsh curses masters and thunder deities voiced to one another in their mutual oaths became conspicuous in rites designed to summon and direct thunder deities to protect or heal. Wang and Bai theorized these curses in inner alchemical terms, developing a theory of ritual collaboration based on deep resonance between the ferocious (nu 怒) nature of thunder deities and the ferocious nature of the master’s primordial spirit cultivated via visualization. Running through these Divine Empyrean theories and practices was the idea that oaths and curses bound different kinds of subjects into collaborative partnerships within the Divine Empyrean cosmic hierarchy.

摘要:

本文研究湖南省當代道教儀式中人神之間立誓的理論基礎。該研究顯示神靈與道教法師立誓結盟此一行為是基於神霄理論家王文卿和白玉蟾的宇宙觀及神學理念。王與白為神霄宇宙體系發展出一個精巧的理論。即是,該宇宙體系是建立在神霄高階天神之間的誓言交換之上。在誓言中,天神對自身立下詛咒,承諾如若違反誓言,他們自身將承受嚴懲。遵循高階天神的範例,道教法師和雷神也相互立誓結盟。通過交換誓言,雙方建立合作關係。這種關係為他們所行之雷法奠定儀式的靈效。在召喚雷神及指揮雷神驅邪治病的儀式中,人神誓言所包含的嚴苛叱咒格外引人注目。王文卿和白玉蟾將這類叱咒在內丹意義上理論化。他們的理論闡發即是,雷神具有“怒”之特性,而道教法師通過存想鍊就的元神也具有同等的“怒”之特性;人神之間的儀式合作是基於雙方的相同性質之間的深層感應。王與白的理論闡釋了一個重要的神霄理念:通過立誓結盟和叱咒,不同的儀式主體結合而建構神霄宇宙等級體系中的合作夥伴關係。

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Additional Information

ISSN
2050-8999
Print ISSN
0737-769X
Pages
pp. 31-58
Launched on MUSE
2020-04-23
Open Access
No
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