This article explores the co-shaping of global challenges and governance of science and technology through time. It aims to address the issue of governance of science and technology as governing through local (regional, national) and international negotiations and institutions. At the center of the analysis is the entanglement of technology, science, diplomacy, and diplomatic relations, which we explore through the concept of science diplomacy. We argue that the transnational perspective allows scholars to connect the local and global scales, and conclude with a reflection on how historical perspectives on the governance of science and technology in periods of social and economic crisis can provide valuable insights to policy-makers.