The present issue contains selected papers from the Fifth Sociolinguistics of Language Endangerment (SoLE) Workshop held during the Twentieth International Congress of Linguists of the Comité International Permanent des Linguistes at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, on 5–6 July 2018. This collection focuses on sociolinguistic issues related to language endangerment in Africa and Asia, but, of course, similar processes are underway worldwide. I also discuss here in general terms the many factors leading to language endangerment and the range of possible community responses.