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Dutch control of northeastern Brazil (1624–1625; 1630–1654) sparked a powerful, transatlantic Portuguese reaction, yet scholars have skewed the seventeenth century in favor of the more "enterprising" Netherlanders. This view represents the tendency for historians to mine relatively well-ordered Dutch and English language source material. Portuguese language depositions and chronicles, however, reveal that Luso-Brazilians served as translators, guides, and soldiers for both sides, directly influencing the outcome of the war. Marginalized men and women negotiated sociopolitical openings during times of conflict by drawing from prophecy, breaking social mores, and demonstrating loyalty to God and Portugal. Largely due to their efforts, the Luso-Dutch conflict for Brazil resulted in the permanent ouster of the Dutch West India Company from Brazil, served as a crucible for elite and popular Portuguese self-understanding, and led to the spiritual and material salvation of the kingdom of Portugal.