In the early stage of reform, Chinese technocrats with engineering backgrounds like Li Peng, Hu Qili and Jiang Zemin were promoted to top positions in the Communist Party's Politburo Standing Committee. During Jiang's and Hu's tenure, more technocrats were promoted, and an increasing proportion had educational background in the social sciences rather than in engineering and the natural sciences. After Xi Jinping came to power in 2012, a large number of technocrats with working experiences in the military and aerospace industries, or training in social sciences, especially economics, were promoted to key positions. The growing number of technocrats in the Party-state also reflects China's transition from Mao's society ruled by warriors to the industrial society ruled by engineers, planners and producers in the reform era. In the transition from industrial (mass production) to post-industrial (service-oriented) society, China's technocracy is shifting its centrality towards new science-based industries like artificial intelligence, aerospace technology and telecommunications.