Abstract

In 1990, the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) replaced the X rating with the NC-17 category—No Children 17 and under Admitted. The new designation took effect immediately and was copyrighted so that adult filmmakers—-who appropriated the X for pornography in 1968—could no longer unilaterally apply it to their films. MGM/UA's Henry & June became the first major studio film to receive the outermost rating since 1979. The NC-17's immediate inheritance of the veneer of the X rating, and the subsequent box-office failure of Showgirls (1995), reaffirmed the economic liability of the rating system's adults-only category.

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Additional Information

ISSN
2578-4919
Print ISSN
2578-4900
Pages
pp. 69-93
Launched on MUSE
2001-05-01
Open Access
No
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