University of Hawai'i Press

The Huainan honglie 淮南鴻烈 (Illustrious Compendium of Huainan), commonly called Huainanzi 淮南子 (Book of the Master of Huainan; trl. Major et al. 2010), goes back to the Prince of Huainan, Liu An 劉安 (79-122 BCE) and his think-tank. A comprehensive volume in twenty-one chapters, it aims at "establishing morality and identifying the relationship of human affairs," and presents materials that show "the universal law being investigated, human affairs being connected, the way of the emperor being prepared" (ch. 21). Its goal is to outline the principles of Dao in conjunction with morality, society, and cosmic harmony.

In its first chapter, it speaks about physical cultivation. "The body is the living place of life. Qi is the original motive energy of life. Spirit is the controlling agent of the function of life. The malfunction of any one is detrimental to all three." That is to say, the living place of life is the physical body, manifest potently in vital essence (jing 精), while its original motive power is vital energy or qi 氣, which can ignite power in any part of the body. Beyond these two, spirit (shen 神) is the controlling function of life, which commands the flow of qi and enables the all the various body activities. Body, qi and spirit are different, but depend on one another and in real life work together closely, forming a unified system in a holistic manner so that, if one is out of alignment or malfunctions, all three are compromised. [End Page 184]

Body, qi, and spirit are inseparable and cannot be worked individually, which is an important insight in qigong theory today. Spirit manages the bodily instincts, and the various expressions of the physical form and personal body follow. On the other hand, if bodily instincts supersede the spirit and are determined entirely by sensory desires, the spirit will be depleted and no longer able to manage the body properly.

In nurturing life, the highest form is to enhance spirit, while the secondary way is to purify the physical form. In self-cultivation, the highest form is to harmonize body and mind by accommodating seasonal, monthly, and daily changes of nature, while the secondary way is to train the body with specific techniques. When the spirit is crystal clear and the mind is steady, all parts of the body are comfortably relaxed. This then forms the foundation of nurturing the mind. This overall system is at the root of personal refinement both in the ancient Huainan honglie and in holo-cosmic qigong today.

The Traditional System

The first chapter of the Huainan honglie on "Original Dao" (Yuandao 元道) says, "The sages focus on the fundamentals internally without worrying about trivial external decorations. To maintain a high quality of spirit, they reduce the function of the mind. By taking no unnecessary action, they reach a state where nothing is not accomplished. By remaining calm and executing no unnecessary governance, they reach a point where nothing is not well governed."

What the text means when it speaks of the "foundations internally" is the power of spirit. If spirit is kept silent without sound and calm without agitation, the physical form flows along smoothly and naturally. As it does so, it takes no unnecessary action and does not deplete spirit, leading to a state where everything is just right. This is the first principle of internal cultivation. Silence and serenity empower the body, qi, and spirit, while nervousness and agitation deplete them—the ultimate cause of aging and decline. Remaining free from excessive labor in the body and agitation in the mind is the best condition for nurturing the spirit.

Similarly, the medical classic, Huangdi neijing 黃帝內經 (Inner Classic of the Yellow Emperor) has, "If the relative dynamic equilibrium of yin and yang is achieved, the violation of vital essence and qi, that is the [End Page 185] fundamental cause of sickness, will be resolved. If the equilibrium is destroyed, the inter-dependence of essence and qi will be broken so as to endanger life." The Jin'gui yaolu 金櫃要錄 (Essential Record [Contained] in a Chest of Gold) says," Epilepsy is caused by weakened yin qi, madness is due to by weakened yang qi." Chinese medicine describes all health and disease in terms of the activity of qi, which is classifies in six types: wind, heat, fire, wetness, dryness, and cold.

The Huandi neijing also says, "If positive qi is preserved internally, there will be no disease." There are three types of positive qi: that of of the human body, the external energy of space and food, and the underlying force of the universe. The first two are described as postnatal, emanations of the material system of the world, while the third is prenatal, the primordial power underlying all life. They are written with different characters, as first evident from a text on bamboo slips, discovered at Guodian in Hubei in 1993. Here the prenatal qi is written 炁, a character made up from the words ji 既, "already," and huo 火, "fire,". Postnatal qi 氣, on the other hand, consists of the words mi 米, "rice," plus qi 气, "sail." While the former thus indicates a primal level of fiery potency, the latter shows the steam rising up from rice cooking.

Within the human system, these two combine into the so-called three treasures. Vital essence—the root of sexual fluids as well as bones, teeth, and brain—is their denser, more concrete manifestation; life energy or personal qi is their expression in the functioning of the five inner organs and the related vascular, meridian, and muscular system; while spirit is their subtler, faster moving, and more elusive manifestation, present in mind, thinking, intention, and emotions.

The three treasures form a unified system as they constitute the human being. The traditional system is to refine them one into the other, purifying essence to become qi, then sublimating qi increasingly into the level of spirit. This is at the core of the practice of internal alchemy, which sees the human body in terms of a threefold structure and aims for the transcendence of all. [End Page 186]

Holo-Cosmic Qigong

Holo-cosmic qigong is a practice system first developed by Grandmaster Xiao Changming 蕭昌明 (1895-1943). Born in Sichuan, he underwent a transformative period of sickness and first obtained divine powers when he was six years old, discovering methods of enhancing and manipulating prenatal qi for healing. At the same time, he also subscribed to the practice of four key virtues, loyalty, filial piety, benevolence, and compassion, later described as the "spiritual treatment."

Around 1926, Xiao expanded these to the Twenty Words that became the mainstay of his teaching. They are: "Loyalty, altruism, integrity, straightforwardness, magnanimity, uprightness, righteousness, trustworthiness, forbearance, impartiality, universal brotherhood, filial piety, benevolence, compassion, comprehension, temperance, frugality, genuineness, propriety, and harmony." The key to holo-cosmic qigong is the twenty words and their philosophy. In Chinese, the word ershi for "twenty" sounds just like the term for "recite," "twenty words" also means "recite the words." Master Xiao started to use qigong for healing from early childhood, a feature that propelled him to notoriety.

In 1927, he formalized his vision into the Religion of Heaven's Magnanimity and Holy Teaching (Tiande shengjiao 天德聖教; also called Holy Church of Heavenly Virtue)—a forerunner of the later Tiandi jiao 天 帝 教 (Teaching of the Heavenly Emperor; see Ju and Lü 2014)—systematically integrating the core values of five major religions into one system or "grand unity" (datong 大同), so they could work together as one form of heavenly virtue, realized through mindfulness in support of all humanity. As a representative of his school, Xiao wandered about the country, preaching and teaching widely. His mission was to save the world, and he gained many followers, in due course establishing the Research Institute of Religion and Philosophy and the Oriental Spiritual Nursing Home, with branches nationwide.

His work continued to spread. Nobody would have supported him had his techniques not been effective. They were further validated after the 1980s, when qigong research blossomed in China, leading to numerous scientific experiments and increasing international studies of cosmo-energetic therapies. Eventually he passed his knowledge on to his student, Bao Guiwen, who participated in experiments at Beijing Navy [End Page 187] Hospital. There he emerged as a foremost qigong master in terms of treatment effectiveness.

In 1987, after having studied with Master Xiao's successors, I further systematized his system and formally named it holo-cosmic qigong. It joins traditional medicine, modern science, and Daoist thought into one integrated unit and works in four stages.

First is physical practice or dynamic skills, working with the colored ball of qi and the prism of the Twenty Words; second is applied practice of treatment skills, both apparent and secret; third is seated practice or sedentary skills, sitting in quiet meditation, adopting the lotus posture, and working on internal cultivation; and fourth is advance practice or internal alchemy, the systematic refinement of essence, qi, and spirit. The progression of practice works by first combining mind and body, then merging postnatal and prenatal qi, third attaining the unity of heaven and humanity, and finally fusing humanity and universal greatness with the natural law.

Grandmaster Xiao once said, "We do not adhere to any religion. The successful doctrine and the spirit of each religion are what we adhere to, for example, loyalty and altruism in Confucianism, compassion in Buddhism, genuineness in Daoism, fraternity in Christianity, and purity in Islam. They are summarized in the Twenty Words." Integrating the core values of the five world religions is a new level of integration and harmony, a release form the shackles of the old framework that can greatly reinforce the mental power of humanity.

The key method to attain the convergence and enhancement of primordial is the practice of austerities in conjunction with a review of one's understanding of life and matter. The ability to handle qi is enhanced through practice. Furthermore, the combination of treatment and practice appears as the provision of treatment and enriches the practitioner with merit according to the principle of karma. As Grandmaster Xiao once said, "Through my command of prenatal or primordial qi, the profound wonder of the system of five phases ignites the supramundane opportunity. The immortal body is refined to obtain the enlightened insight." [End Page 188]

Activation

Currently the curriculum of holo-cosmic qigong consists of:

  1. 1. dynamic skills: the colored ball of the twenty words

  2. 2. treatment skills: basic (apparent) plus advanced (secret)

  3. 3. sedentary skills: meditation, including basic, lotus, and higher cultivation practices

  4. 4. internal alchemy

The practice proceeds from a combination of mind and body through the joining of internal (personal) and primordial (universal) qi to the unity of heaven and humanity and eventually culminates in the oneness of humanity with heaven's magnanimity in compliance with the natural law.

The twenty words are the key to lasting and effective outcomes, since they integrate the key concepts of various different religions and adhere to the core principle of common goals. They represent simplicity and replace complication and complexity, thus making the work easy. They serve as a compass of life and virtue, as the spindle of cultivation; formulating the common goal of the different religions, they contain universal truth and are miraculous in saving people. They are also the quality foundation of the meaning of life, a complete set of philosophy, and the basis blessing both individuals and families. Based on by the common goal of world peace, they embody the practical aspects of religion and philosophy. Adhering to them can prevent the swell of negative emotions arising from the vicissitudes of life and the experience of criticism.

The twenty words do not represent rigid doctrines, but can be activated with flexibility and varied according to practical needs. They connect the moral practicality of many different religions, joined into one system that reinforces the mental power of humanity. Triggering the flow of positive energy through the right mindset and proper ideas, they lay the groundwork for all forms of holo-cosmic qigong and its treatments.

Next, to join internal and primordial qi, one must practice austerities and review one's understanding of life and matter. The training leads from material to increasingly more intangible experiences and also enhances [End Page 189] the ability to handle qi. Body, qi, and spirit combine with inherent virtues and people's pure inner nature to naturally create holo-cosmic qi. Because the same kind of qi magnetically attracts, holo-cosmic qi absorbed from the air, the primitive energy of the universe, leads to the release of huge amounts of energy through the joining of heaven and humanity. This is facilitated by advanced masters. During treatment they will guides the patient's intention but do not impact their elixir fields.

The combination of treatment and practice grows further through practice, since adepts gain merits according to the principle of karma and retribution. Acquiring qi without deviation, they can provide effective cures without side effects to the great amazement of both qigong and medical practitioners.

The system, moreover, closely echoes the ancient body cosmology of the Huainan hongliei. Both share a tripartite division of the human person into body, qi, and spirit, described in holo-cosmic qigong as the Dao of prenatal qi (qidaoo 炁道), the body as physical form (xingqu 形軀) and mind-matter (xinwu 心物). They also both speak of unifying the three into one, the Huainan honglie using the expression "one organism, three levels (yiti sanchong 一體三重), which holo-cosmic qigong reads as "one substance, three functions (yiti sanyong 一體三用).

More specifically, they include the upper function of the Dao of prenatal qi, leading to enlightenment and the awareness of heaven; the middle function of the body as physical form working with the cultivation of merit and the establishment of morality; and the lower function of mind-matter, saving people and benefiting life.

In this context, the practice of holo-cosmic qigong serves to heal both the mind and the body, increasing the ability to guide and activate qi, It begins in the heart and mind, closely linked with the motivation to practice and improve oneself derived from the twenty words. The first step is self-cultivation, dominantly applying the principle of righteousness among the twenty words. Through great righteousness we can get rid of sickness and disease, expanding from there into all twenty words as they connect to the meridians in the human body.

Twelve of these meridians are paired directly relate to the inner organ; the remaining eight are single and called "extraordinary vessels," establishing a fundamental network of energy pathways. To attain a balance and full equilibrium of yin and yang as well as the smooth circulation [End Page 190] of qi and blood, one must curing all sickness and disease by first of all handling of emotions and inclinations properly, matching their position in the theory of qi and blood in Chinese medicine.

Healing

Using the twenty words in various ways, one can heal all sorts of physical ailments as well as any problems in the family. They function on multiple levels and fulfill various purposes, being highly inclusive and of great healing power. Grandmaster Xiao notes,

These twenty words do not only cure sickness, but form core elements in the healing heal mind, body, and family… To manage psychological and physical health, as well as that of the family, is essential in life.

The ultimate cause of all sickness and disease lies in evil desires and negative emotions. We use righteousness to banish evil desires, thereby facilitating the full recovery of health without any external medicines.

People nowadays do not follow the traditions and common practices of the old days; they live their lives full of explosive desires. Therefore, we use this method to heal their body and fix the confusion in their mind. It

It gives great benefits and makes society more virtuous. Besides, our imprints are mental states. When our will is stable and not rash, we can absorb everything. Otherwise, everything will come to a starndsill. When we can absorb everything and use it to supplement what we need, all minor ailments will be eliminated.

To a certain extent, the mind is the spirit. If the state of mind is consistent without arousal, all things will be inclusive. If the state of mind is variable, all things will be perishable. If all things are inclusive, how can sickness not be cured?

This is to say, the human character can never be entirely perfect, but cultivation works to heal various medical issues in both body and mind. Being reborn through this practice, one undergoes a transformation in body, qi, and spirit, and eventually completes the cultivation process.

Natural therapies in the contemporary world work strongly with qigong and tend to focus on the body. However, the mind is also highly relevant. When you are happy, the mind secretes healthy and happy hormones, thus directly impacting the body. A lot of chaos in human life is due to suffering of not attaining one's desires. This creates a mental state of tension and dissatisfaction. It can be alleviated by treasuring [End Page 191] what we already have. The less people settle down, the more they get upset again and again, creating a highly frustrating and painful life for themselves. This in turn will affect the body and cause sickness and disease.

It is of utmost importance that people cure the mind before they work on healing the body. The joint practice of healing physical ailments and making the heart-and-mind whole rests with personal cultivation and does not require the services of quack or spiritual psychics. Rather, it works with sage counsel and an improvement of mood and internal energy. In this way, patients can live in accordance with the law of nature. This is the ultimate and best treatment: it can fully relieve any suffering. "The twenty words purify heaven and earth; they create good and evil; they are the gateway of great wisdom. The twenty words open up civilization and transform each and every one of us into warrior attendants of the Buddha. They heal the heart-and-mind, and from there allow full healing of the body." Again, Grandmaster Xiao:

To heal the sickness of common in society nowadays, we need to tackle the thoughts in our mind. If our mind does not have a stubborn goal, sickness cannot be created. Sickness today is caused by the worries of everything. All worries are concentrated on material desire. This is also where the sickness comes from for the whole society. Our church invented this method. It was originally not designed for healing, but for the sake of rectifying the downside of people. We hold a merciful heart from curing a physical disease to all the sickness in the heart of all people. The heart of human is the heart of the heaven and earth. If our human mind is honest, the heart of the heaven and earth will be propitious. Even though there is a catastrophe, we can be saved with a collective goal in the heart.

As more and more people recover from the various ailments of the healrt-and-mind, the human realm turns into a land of joy and happiness.

Daoist Thought

Both traditional Daoist thought and the Grandmaster Xiao's vision of grand unity broaden cogitation and present great philosophical achievements. They both work with the notion of prenatal qi, also called holo-cosmic qi, which originates in the great Dao and is activated in specific [End Page 192] qigong practices to serve the healing of diseases. They also establish the ultimately ideal principle of "healing diseases as well as healing the mind," which represents the supreme natural therapy.

In addition, they equally promote and practice the religious amalgamation of the unity of the great Dao and pursue the ultimate goal of universal unity, which begins with religious cultivation practice and leads to the systematic attainment of cosmic oneness in the great Dao. They similarly strive and "pray for world peace," placing no emphasis on religious sectarianism as they eliminate racial confrontation.

Today, the organization of holo-cosmic qigong works with the Research Institute of Religion and Philosophy in studying various ways of attaining oneness with Dao. In this context, it establishes a new platform by reinterpreting the idea of religion to combine the theory of the great Dao with the compassion toward all sentient beings. At the same time, it also strives to do away with all sorts of feudal superstitions while promoting education and research in the hope of popularizing Daoism.

The system of the twenty words, which match core ideas of traditional Daoism and other religions, replaces complication with simplicity. It works with inherent dualism, yet overcomes it in favor of the ultimate "unity of mind and matter" as its key theory of oneness with Dao. In this context, it favors "the enlightenment of consciousness and the perfection of volitional impulses" as the central principle of Daoist practice.

The teaching in addition combines celestial observations of antiquity with modern physics and the understanding of universal evolution since the Big Bang to form an integrated understanding of "the universal creation of the great Dao."

On this basis, holo-cosmic qigong has develops a moral system, based on the idea of virtue in the Daode jing, which it also sees as the fertile soil enriching the tree called nāga-puspa, which sheltered the Buddha Maitreya during his enlightenment. . In line with Buddhist teachings, the system strongly emphasizes compassion as the key path to "perfect contentment" and spiritual "enlightenment."

In terms of personal cultivation, it has created a skillful way of changing the flow and enhancing the potency of prenatal qi, again relying heavily on the twenty words as a method of fundamental salvation. This, moreover leads to the attainment of great personal merit, especially when combined with a bodhisattva-like vow of strong determination to [End Page 193] benefit all sentient beings in all ones thoughts and actions. The practice takes secular and humanistic concerns and integrates them fluidly, eventually combining human and heavenly virtue into one.

Another concrete way of achieving health and harmony is the establishment of a "charity farm," a retreat center where people can move away from their concerns for the human realm and embrace key issues of the cultivation of the great Dao. Once having attained a basic connection with Dao, practitioners promote living in and with the great Dao in all works of life, their very being serving the popularization of the great Dao and the Daoist ideal way of simple living. Part of this is the active immersion in the tranquility of the lotus world as well as the continuous integration of all things tangible and intangible in the great Dao.

Social Cooperation

In the past, adepts of self-cultivation would escape from the mundane world for tranquility and to avoid chaos. They might stay in a remote forest, retire to a mountain cave, or build a hut in the jungle to study the scriptures, search for wisdom, and engage in various practices. Giving up the mundane and immersing themselves completely in the heavenly, they prevented interference and increased the likelihood of success.

Today, on the other hand, the thinking has changed. If we never face the mundane and train ourselves to work with its challenges, the will of our hearts and our level of tolerance remain untested. By facing temptations and dangers, we can grow in other, often unexpected ways, especially if we emphasize the performance of kind acts and continuously build up our virtues with the intention to contribute to society. We may feel confused toward righteousness, find that our wisdom is not growing and that things can never be done to full perfection. We may even be taken advantage of by someone with bad intentions, creating internal worries and detrimental results, a state that is counterproductive and unpredictable.

Therefore Buddhists emphasized the practice of the "mutual engagement of compassion and wisdom." Form a base of kindness and passion, we can understand the beauty of life and enhance wisdom, then accumulate experiences and reach closer to the big accomplishment. "Grandmaster Xiao saw the messiness of the human heart in society and [End Page 194] wanted to help. He possessed the same kindness and passion as other sages and similarly swore a great vow of universal salvation. As he healed the sick, he called upon the entire world and prayed that all kind people would apply the twenty words to gain access to the virtues."

Curing the sick and healing people are the visible manifestation of compassion and wisdom, enhancing mutual support among humanity. The social cooperation of people, their efforts to help one another, represents the practice of sentient beings joining together. We all walk on roads that lead to the same place: "Whether simple cells or social animals like humans, life on the planet always means complex coordination. Cooperation is a key factor in evolution, which us who we are today. Maintaining this kind of cooperation is also the biggest challenge we face today. Facing this challenges, the human brain comes up with the virtues."

The virtues arise as ideas in our brains, then are activated and actualizes in the reality of the present. We must break through the authorities and limitations of the past and cultivate the virtues together. In the spirit of modern globalization, Grandmaster Xiao notes that followers of Dao should focus on both, religion and philosophy, and study similarities and differences among their various cultural expressions with detachment and in an objective manner. He describes the blind belief in any religion as superstition, an attitude that will not do any favors to oneself or to others.

On the other hand, the objective study of religion and philosophy under the auspices of critical thinking is helpful in the process of opening one's thinking towards other perspectives and connecting Chinese thought to the world. The best mindset is one of a wide perspective.

We should strive reach an inside understanding of a given religion, then work on the analyses of its philosophy, thereby to attain a clear direction of thinking and develop good reasons for our attitudes and behavior. When we work with a religion and study a philosophy, we do not just obtain a vague summary without a purpose, but have an affirmative goal in mind.

If we let go of religion and solely study philosophy and abstract concepts, the tendency will be to engage in vague summaries without a practical purpose. Why is this so? Because philosophy as embedded in a religion enables us to understand the origin of the universe and learn which virtues are most appropriate for our lives. This is one way to read the ancient doctrine [End Page 195] of the mean—being without bias and following the principle of interactivity. Being free from bias, we can truly achieve moderation in all things.

Grandmaster Xiao's ideal is to save the people from the chaotic world and to help them in a timely fashion as they face potential disasters and various forms of suffering. To this end, he worked hard to cure the sick and heal people, always striving to inspire compassion and kindness among them, so they could cultivate merit, establish morality, and promote their personal self-cultivation. He himself would get stronger in the process.

Overall, this is a win-win approach, which consolidates healing cultivation and spiritual practice, and guides people toward the gate of virtue and peace. Useful under any circumstances, but especially when faced with troubled times, wars, or disease, it alleviates the pressures of modern life, providing great benefits in a short period of time.

Conclusion

The ancient classic Huainan honglie integrates the traditional forces of body, qi, and spirit to see the human being as a threefold structure. The system was beneficial for practitioners even then, as they worked to open the gate toward great vitality and refined their skills of nourishing life. The same pattern was also at the core of preventive medicine at the time, as described in the Huangdi neijing. Here the three forces are at the foundation of medical theory and serve as core functions in healing practice.

Today, they are activated in meditation practice, which helps to refine the body as physical form into subtler levels of energy and vital essence. In modern biomedical terms, essence in this context includes basic materials of life such blood and cells, qi involves oxygen in breathing and various metabolic functions, while spirit has to do with the mental and spiritual power that allows us to command bodily functions and personal intention. This means that our individual disposition can be transformed through the systematic cultivation of essence, qi, and spirit. Doing so, we integrate the enhancement of health with the refinement of wisdom, which is much like what internal alchemists call the dual cultivation [End Page 196] of inner nature and life-destiny, and thereby establish a holistic system of health and well-being.

The external refinement of body, qi, and spirit is activated in dynamic qigong, healing exercises, and martial-type work-outs. Internal practice in many ways is like internal alchemy: it involves insight meditation, the internal guiding and refinement of qi, as well as non-moving forms of qigong. Each body movement in dynamic qigong and each stage of cultivation refinement—moving from saliva to essence, to qi, to spirit, to nonbeing, and eventually to oneness with original nature—present their own forms of wisdom and internal knowing. Not only aerobic exercise and mindful breath awareness, as they would be described in modern sports culture, the practice is also preventive medicine and provides tremendous benefit to human health.

The authors of the Huainan honglie and other pre-Qin scholars already pointed out that formed existence arises on the basis of formless being and outline the concept of primordial qi as the formless energy underlying all. Grandmaster Xiao picked up on this thinking and also used it to develop specific treatment techniques that involved the external infusion and spatial extension of primordial qi. To save people from acute danger and suffering, moreover, he developed an innovative application of prenatal qi, which eventually led to the creation of holo-cosmic qigong as an open and comprehensive system of both healing and self-cultivation.

The practice is a new way for practitioners to conduct primordial qigong treatments at any time with the goal of relieving the pain of others, so they can attain health and happiness. The combination of healing others and refining oneself raises the individual's capacities as it connects him or her to the universal energetic field of primordial qi. This field is best expressed in the twenty words, which summarize the core virtues of the world's great religions. For self-cultivation to succeed, the individual's moral spirit must be raised to embrace the realm of the virtues. In this manner, adepts can undertake the integrative practice of the Dao of Great Unity and merge with all sentient beings. They can attain a breakthrough of the limitations of spacetime as they become more deeply immersed in moral thinking and action. The process is open to anyone: all people are capable to become successful practitioners and experience the ultimate state. Holo-cosmic qigong, as much as its forerunner in the [End Page 197] Huainan honglie, can eradicate all the obstacles that still prevent humanity form undertaking authentic practice and experiencing the infinity of Dao.

Abraham S. Y. Poon

Abraham S. Y. Poon has been a master of Holo-Cosmic Qigong since 1986. He also works as a tutor in the School of Professional and Continuing Education of the University of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Polytecnical University. Email: poabr20@yahoo.com.hk.

References

Major, John S., Sarah A. Queen, Andrew S. Meyer, and Harold D. Roth. 2010. The Huainanzi: A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Government in Early Han China. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ju, Keyi, and Xianlong. 2014: Tiandi jiao: The Daoist Connection." Hournal of Daoist Studies 7:195-212.

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