Despite suggestions that multiple citizenships offer enhanced access to security, mobility, and rights, dual nationals of countries like Iran may instead experience greater insecurity, immobility, and disruption of rights. This article offers a brief overview of recent literature and controversies surrounding dual citizenship and then focuses on the Iranian case, demonstrating the limits of dual citizenship as felt by diasporic Iranians. The winds of geopolitical change may affect which nation's dual citizens will be targeted in a given time period, but the impact of geopolitical constraints must be considered in any explanations of the costs and benefits of dual citizenship.