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The Renaissance period was marked by an increase in translation activity due to the invention of the moving printing press. However, the activity of translating was rather far from translation as we understand it in the modern sense and was often close to adaptation or even rewriting. Furthermore, translators sometimes produced a "translingual" text. This article explores a corpus of Spanish texts translated into French during the 16th century. It analyzes their translingual component and establishes a typology of translingualisms. It shows in particular that translingual writing was closely linked to the context of rivalries between languages and peoples.