Johns Hopkins University Press
summary

This paper uses the tables of contents of TAPA from the past 150 years as well as the results of a mailed survey from authors who have published in the journal for the last 50 years to interrogate demographic changes in our field. By tracking class, gender, race, and immigration status of TAPA authors, we assess the progress that has been made as represented by the public scholarly face of the Society of Classical Studies since 1869. Yet, we also show that progress has been slow and that the position of classicists from marginalized groups has always been precarious. Further, certain groups, particularly persons of color, are still notably under-represented in the marketplace of ideas represented by TAPA.

This paper surveys the contents of TAPA as the curated record of the professional association, the Society for Classical Studies, originally named the American Philological Association. The project grew out of a discussion at a meeting of the Research and Publications committee in January 2018, when then President Joe Farrell proposed a demographic survey of the published authors of articles in TAPA. We trace the changing demographics of authors published in TAPA, using a mailed survey covering fifty years of TAPA, 1968–2017 (the complete 2018 volume was not available when we mailed the e-surveys) and compiling data for authors 1869–1967.1

To be sure, the series (now journal) TAPA, like any archive, reflects the narrative as written by the winners (Trouillot 1995), and these stake-holders have been studied: Mastronarde has surveyed the editors and the changing [End Page S-39] editorial processes of TAPA, those empowered to certify the winners; Eric Adler has examined the clashes of the largely male, largely white leadership of APA/SCS over the proper definition of Classics as a discipline and a profession.2 Power has thus been re-inscribed in the history of SCS/APA, not unsurprisingly, as the history of the Association and of its journal. Dan-el Padilla Peralta's recent survey of twenty years of the publication opened a discussion about the workings of power, and its effects on the careers of nontraditional groups.3 Recognizing the influence of power on narratives of our own past as a professional organization, we have tried to ask questions that reveal larger processes of social transformation and illustrate the everyday experience of scholars as they built their careers. It is that data that we seek to bring forward here.

the first decades (1869–99)

The first volume of TAPA 1869–70 includes the work of Professors James Hadley (Yale), William Whitney (Yale), William W. Goodwin (Harvard), S. S. Haldeman (St John's College, MD), Yale librarian Addison van Name, Yale Instructor Thomas Lounsbury, and J. Hammond Trumbull, who had undertaken undergraduate studies at Yale, left for health reasons, and is identified as "Honorable," perhaps a nod to his public political offices in Connecticut State government.4 Whitney was named the first President of the newly formed American Philological Association (TAPA 1869–70, Proceedings, p. 9); Trumbull assumed several important roles in the first meeting of the newly formed society, including appointment to the committee to nominate the first officers (p. 8) and to the committee to draft principles of the organization (p. 11), and he was elected Treasurer (p. 22). Both Goodwin (1872) and Trumbull (1875) would serve as Presidents of APA in its first decade, Goodwin serving again in 1885. Of the authors of the first volume, Whitney published eight articles in the following decade (1869–70, 1871, 1872, 1874, 1876, 1877 bis), Trumbull published seven articles (1869–70 bis, 1871, 1872 bis, 1874, 1876), Haldeman published five (1869–70, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876), Goodwin published four (1869–70, 1873, 1876, 1877). Only two authors of the first volume published once (Lounsbury, Van Name). The role of the executive committee [End Page S-40] is perhaps to be marked: by the articles of 1869, an Executive committee of ten, consisting of the officers (president, two vice presidents, secretary and treasurer) plus five additional members, determined the papers to be read at the annual meetings and authorized the publications (pp. 16–17).

In the first decade of TAPA, a limited number of individual scholars dominate with repeated publications. M.W. Humphreys (Vanderbilt) published six articles (1876 bis, 1878 bis, 1879 bis); Francis A. March (Lafayette College, PA) published five articles (1871, 1872 bis, 1873, 1877) and his work appears ten times in the first thirty years of TAPA; Lewis R. Packard (Yale) and Crawford H. Toy (Southern Baptist Theological Seminary) published four articles each. Of the 85 published articles, nine individual contributors write only once (10.5%), from liberal arts colleges (Amherst, Bowdoin), secondary preparatory schools (Friends School, Hopkins Grammar), from public research universities (Cincinnati; University of Michigan), and military institutes (US Naval Observatory). The geographical range of schools (CT, DC, KY, MA, ME, MI, NY, OH, PA, RI, TN) and the inclusion of secondary, preparatory school teachers and non-academics (US Naval commander) reflects the geographic diversity of the membership already in 1871, including 28 states in the East, Midwest, and South (AR, CT, DC, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV), and the statuses of members, high school teachers and administrators, clerics, military personnel (Col. T. W. Higginson, Gen. A. B. Smith), and at least 10 women teaching at preparatory schools or Women's Colleges.5 The expanding membership and its diversity belie the domination of particular, individual voices. Scholars from Yale published 21/85 (25%) of the TAPA articles in the first decade. The discourse was broad, covering, e.g., Native American languages, Yoruba, language in Paraguay; but the circle of interlocutors small.

TAPA in the next two decades, 1880–99, reveals an increasing range of contributors. Individual authors continue to dominate: Francis A. March (Lafayette College, PA) again published five articles (1881, 1886, 1895, 1897, 1898) in addition to the five in the previous decade (1871, 1872 bis, 1873, 1877). Benjamin W. Wells produced seven (1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887); Herbert Smyth had four articles (1887, 1889, 1897, 1898), as did Charles [End Page S-41] P. G. Scott (1892, 1893, 1894, 1895). The scholarship resembles works in progress and creates the impression of a conversation: Scott published three articles entitled "English Words Which Have Gained or Lost an Initial Consonant by Attraction" in 1892, 1893, 1894; Smyth published two articles with the same title "Mute and Liquid in Greek Melic Poetry" successively in 1897 and 1898. Published authors held a variety of academic positions: March held an academic post at Lafayette College (PA), Wells with a Harvard PhD (1880) taught at the Friends School in Rhode Island, Smyth was at Johns Hopkins and then professor at Bryn Mawr College, Scott lived outside NYC and was an editor for The Century Dictionary project.6 Despite the East coast dominance, 22/126 published articles (17.5%) in the two decades are by authors who published only once and came from Ohio (Miami University), Indiana (Earlham College), Iowa (Grinnell College and Iowa College), California (Leland Stanford Jr. University), and included the work of a Swedish scholar, Dr. A. H. Edgren, who published in TAPA in 1881, while studying at Yale, and eventually taught at the University of Nebraska (1885–1901).7 The geographical range of the publishing authors reflects—albeit minimally—the expanding membership, as documented in 1899, comprising 482 members, drawn from 37/45 United States, and including Washington DC, foreign nationals in Canada, and immigrants from Germany. The expansion of membership also correlates with the concerted advocacy of the APA for the study of the ancient languages, reflected in the work of a specially appointed Twelve Member Commission [TAPA 30 (1899) lxxix–cxxii] that triumphantly documented the increasing interest nationwide in the classical languages (esp. cxvii–cxix) and developed a curriculum of Greek and Latin for the secondary schools to deepen that interest.8 Finally TAPA memorialized the APA's participation in the [End Page S-42] cultural program of Chicago's World's Fair (1893)—"at the invitation of the World's Congress Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition"—with four articles by international scholars (M. Bréal, College de France; W. Streitberg, University of Fribourg, Switzerland; E. A. Sonnenscheim, Mason College, England; H. Osthoff, Heidelberg), who, although not members of APA nor registered attendees of the APA meetings, had offered papers at the General Sessions held jointly by APA, MLA and the Dialect Society on 12 and 14 July.9

Membership in 1899 also included 32 women. Although 20 women held academic appointments at the Women's Colleges in the East and the Midwest (Barnard College, Bryn Mawr College, Elmira College, Mount Holyoke College, Vassar College, Wellesley College, Wells College, Western Reserve University College for Women) and at research universities (Professor Annie Crosby Emery, University of Wisconsin), no woman had published in TAPA. The absence of women as published authors underscores the exceptional success of two women, Winifred Warren of Bryn Mawr College, whose paper was read (by Herbert Smyth) at the 29th annual session of the APA in 1897,10 and Professor Abby Leach of Vassar College who was to serve as APA President in 1900.

into the twentieth century (1900–29)

The first three decades of the twentieth century document the increasing intellectual contributions of the American public universities to the intellectual discourses of Classics. In the first three decades of TAPA (1869/70–1899) only 5% of publications are from public universities (11/211 publications). In the first decades of the twentieth century the percentage jumps: 26% (25/97 publications) in 1900–09, 21% (26/124) in 1910–19, 30% (34/115) in 1920–29. Ten authors from public universities publish only once, 12%.11 As in the earlier period, individuals from these universities also publish repeatedly: Cornelius Beach Bradley at the University of California (1907, 1911, 1912, 1917), A. S. Pease at the University of Illinois (1911, 1913, 1918, 1919), Campbell Bonner at the University of Michigan (1908, 1910, 1913, 1921, 1922), Samuel E. Bassett at the University of Vermont (1905, 1917, 1918, 1921, 1922, 1923). Scholars [End Page S-43] use TAPA for their first publications, to establish their areas of expertise from their dissertations, e.g., Bonner (1900), Bennett (1905), Scott (1926s). The scholarship of the public universities is emergent, in California, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, and Wisconsin. The Canadian public universities (Queens University, University of Toronto, University of Victoria, and University of Manitoba) participated regularly. With the increasing contributions of scholars from public universities, of Canadian scholars, and of women, TAPA begins to assume features of a marketplace of ideas.

Women begin to publish in TAPA and successfully enter into the public, professional discourse of the APA. In 1901, Susan Braley Franklin published the first article in TAPA ("Public Appropriations for Individual Offerings and Sacrifices in Greece"), a study of a phrase in an inscription found in Athens. The work drew from and publicized the intellectual fruits of her travels in Greece and study in Berlin in 1898/9, funded by the European Study Fellowship of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, rather than her Bryn Mawr dissertation (on epic influences on Aeschylus).12 Franklin identified herself by her location (Bryn Mawr), not her place of employment (the Baldwin School); her subsequent publications (not in TAPA) concern Latin pedagogy.

Publications in TAPA highlight the role of the Women's Colleges in developing women's success. Vassar College dominates in the first decades, especially 1910–19. Nine women published 11 articles, 10% of the publications for the decade. Of these nine women scholars who published in TAPA in the 1910s, seven held appointments at Vassar (Edith Fahnestock, Mary Peaks, Lily Ross Taylor, Cornelia Coulter, Ella Bourne, Grace Macurdy, Catherine Saunders). Of the two remaining women, Susan Ballou (PhD Giessen) taught at Western State Normal School (later Western Michigan University); Ethel Hampson Brewster (PhD University of Pennsylvania), was teaching at Swarthmore, her alma mater, when she published in TAPA in 1919, although she taught at Vassar College 1914–16, before her return to Swarthmore. Moreover, the successful women publish repeatedly, and mimic the publication patterns of male scholars. So, Grace Macurdy (PhD Columbia; professor at Vassar College) published three times in TAPA in the decade 1910–19 (1910, 1912, 1915).13 Catharine Saunders (BA Elmira College, PhD Columbia; professor at Vassar College) published five times (1911, 1913, 1925, 1927, 1940).14 [End Page S-44]

Women contribute 17% of the scholarly production in TAPA during the decade 1920–29, and in individual years women authors make up as much as 46% (1927), and twice (1922 and 1923) as little as zero. The absence of women's scholarly voices in 1922 and 1923 provides stark contrast—perhaps commentary—on the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment guaranteeing women the right to vote in 1920 and the first promulgation of the Equal Rights Amendment, a proposal brought to the Congress in 1923 by the National Women's Party. The numbers illustrate the precarity of women's claims to an academic place. Established voices repeat (6/18 publications, or 33%): Lily Ross Taylor (1920 at Vassar College, 1929 at Bryn Mawr College, cf. 1914), Susan Ballou (1921 at Bryn Mawr, cf. 1915), Cornelia Coulter (1926 at Mount Holyoke College, cf. 1916 at Vassar College), Catharine Saunders (1927 at Vassar College, cf. 1911) and Ethel Hampson Brewster (1927 at Swarthmore College, cf. 1919). Ten new voices from a range of institutions and academic backgrounds cumulatively predominate: Blanche Brotherton (1924, Mount Holyoke College); Eva Matthews Sanford (1924, unaffiliated; 1928 Case Western Reserve); Adelaide Hahn (1926, Hunter College); Margaret Y. Henry (1927, Franklin K. Lane High School, Brooklyn, NY); Florence Mary Bennet Anderson (1927 and 1929; independent scholar who had resigned tenure at Hunter College in 1918 and published from Walla Walla, WA); Adalaide R. Jones (1927, University of Pittsburgh); Marjorie Carpenter (1927, Stephens [Women's] College, MO); Gertrude Hirst (1928, Barnard College); Ruth Ellis Messenger (1928, Hunter College High School); Inez Gertrude Scott (1929, Vassar College). Six of the women took their BAs at Women's Colleges, both private and public; two earned their BAs at public universities in the Midwest; one woman, an immigrant, had earned her BA at Cambridge. Inez Scott Ryberg completed both BA and PhD within the public university system (BA University of Minnesota, PhD University of Wisconsin). So, the 1920s display a range of women from diverse geographical regions (Midwest, East, Pacific Northwest) and academic backgrounds (private colleges, public universities, immigrants), holding diverse academic posts (teacher, professor). In the 1920s women, working especially from the Women's Colleges, demonstrate their capacity to engage successfully in the larger, national academic discourse represented by TAPA. Four women—Sanford, Hahn, Messenger, and Scott (Ryberg)—begin a long and rich series of academic contributions in TAPA; the careers of two women illustrate the precarity of women finding a place in the academy outside of the Women's Colleges (Henry, Jones). [End Page S-45]

towards tapa's first century (1930–67)

In 1930–67 repeated publications show women successfully inserting their voices into the national discourse, even as their success questions the orthodoxy of meritocratic publishing or hiring. Women competed successfully in the terms that had been defined by male scholars from the very beginnings of APA. Individual women scholars dominate. E. Adelaide Hahn (PhD Columbia) at Hunter College published twenty-one times in TAPA from 1930 to 1967, more than any other single scholar. Lillian Lawler (PhD Iowa) at Hunter College published fourteen times. Also at Hunter, Ruth Ellis Messenger (PhD Columbia) published seven times. Elinor Husselman (PhD University of Michigan) at the University of Michigan published eight times. Eva Matthews Sanford (PhD Harvard) at Sweet Briar College published six times. Three women published four articles (Louise Holland at Bryn Mawr, Dorothy Robathan at Wellesley College; Aline Abaecherli, with various appointments). Three women published three articles (Agnes Kirsopp Michels at Bryn Mawr College, Elizabeth Evans at Vassar College, Ernestine Leon at the University of Texas). Four women published twice (Adelaide Simpson, Lily Ross Taylor, Berthe Marti, Inez Scott Ryberg). By comparison, H. C. Youtie at University of Michigan published the most of any male scholar, namely eighteen articles; Robert Samuel Rogers (PhD Princeton) at Duke University published fifteen; Glanville Downey (PhD Princeton) at Dumbarton Oaks published thirteen; Aubrey Diller (PhD University of Illinois) at Indiana University published eleven; George Duckworth (PhD Princeton) at Princeton University ten; Levi Arnold Post (MA Oxford) at Haverford College nine. Additionally forty-two male authors published twice; twenty-six authors published three times; sixteen male scholars published four times; twelve published five times; five published six times; two men published eight times. On an optimistic interpretation, women, although fewer in number, nevertheless published with frequencies comparable to the men.

The place at which an author works is telling. Men publish successfully at the research universities, both public (Youtie at the University of Michigan; Diller at the University of Indiana) and private (Downey at Dumbarton Oaks, Duckworth at Princeton, Rogers at Duke) and at small liberal arts colleges (Haverford). Women with PhDs from leading PhD programs (Chicago, Harvard, Columbia) who publish successfully in TAPA have regular positions at the Women's Colleges. Productive women scholars outside of the Women's Colleges held special positions as teaching faculty (Ernestine Leon) or as curators (Aline Abaecherli, Elinor Husselman). Women's publication success and the lack of jobs, or irregular positions, or jobs limited to the Women's Colleges, [End Page S-46] challenge the orthodoxy of meritocratic publishing or hiring. William Calder has remarked both Hahn's success and the limitations on her career:

E. Adelaide Hahn was what the Germans call "ein Original." … She eschewed literary criticism for the precise and the difficult. Although a Columbia doctor and fellow student of Moses Hadas, who always smiled when her name was mentioned, she was much influenced in her work by Edgar H. Sturtevant. Indo-European studies with emphasis on the history of the Latin language were the center of her published work. When she wrote on Virgil or Sappho, she was exact and her contributions lasting. She suffered because she was a woman. She never taught her specialty. She richly deserved a chair at a university where she could teach graduate students. Rather she was confined to a woman's college, and generations of grateful undergraduates were the beneficiaries of the injustice done her.15

In Breaking Ground: Women in Old World Archaeology, Terry Wilfong summarized Husselman's career:16

Certainly, she did accomplish and publish much important work during her time in Ann Arbor. However, she was also uncomfortably aware that her professional development was limited in a way that it would not have been if she were a man. A faculty position with potential for professorial rank was not an option for her as it had been for most of her male colleagues.

Women were active in the academy and succeeded in the academy, within frameworks allowed them.

The numbers in aggregate, however, suggest what the success of individual women cost women as a group. In the 1930s and 1940s, women contributed 79 of the 473 articles published in TAPA, a proportion almost identical to that in the 1920s (17%). The proportion of articles written by women in the 1940s totals 20%, with maximums in 1942 (31%) and 1944 (33%) during the war, and a low in 1946 (9%), after the war. The huge variability illustrates again the precarity of women's status. Indeed, in the 1950s, publications by women drop to 15% before bottoming at 9% during 1960–1967. Moreover, in the 1950s, 18 of the 32 articles (57%) written by women were published by the quartet of Hahn, Husselman, Lawler, and Sanford, who had established themselves as leading female scholars beginning in the 1920s. While these scholars [End Page S-47] continued their successful participation in the production of knowledge, new female scholars did not emerge to make their name and become part of the intellectual discourse. Indeed, as Husselman, Lawler, and Sanford faded into the academic background in the 1960s, the number of articles produced by women reduced from 32 to 21, with five of those articles published by Hahn. The percentage of articles published by female scholars not named Hahn, Husselman, Lawler, and Sanford in the 1950s and 1960s flat-lined at 7% of the total number of publications. Moreover, while 59 different women scholars published in the period, the top five authors (Hahn, Lawler, Husselman, Messenger, Sanford) account for 32% of the articles written by women. These five women published on average 11.4 articles over the course of the period, while the other 54 female authors average only 1.3. While these five scholars were admitted into the upper-echelons of the field's intellectual discourse, very few other women featured prominently in America's predominant classical association. In many ways, Hahn, Lawler, Husselman, Messenger, and Sanford represent the exceptions. The publication data in TAPA 1930–67 shows that market share that women had won during the first half of the twentieth century was eroding.

The data for the public universities reveals a similar concentration of academic authority. The majority of the publications that appear in TAPA 1930–67 are produced by scholars who earned their PhD at private universities. Six schools account for more than half of TAPA's publications in this period. Harvard and Princeton PhDs lead the way, producing 102 articles over the 37-year period, with Yale (76 publications), Chicago (63 publications), Columbia (61 publications), and Johns Hopkins (58 publications) following close behind. The absolute numbers of articles by PhDs from leading public universities remain strong in this period: Illinois (39 publications), Michigan (37 publications), and Berkeley (28 publications). Nevertheless, the seemingly impressive numbers can be attributed to the prominence of a small number of prolific scholars. For instance, 21 of Illinois' 39 publications come from just two scholars, Aubrey Diller and Chauncey Finch. Similarly, 23 of Michigan's 37 publications were authored by Elinor Husselman and Roger Pack. Most extreme, 14 out of the 15 publications written by PhDs from University of Iowa are authored by Lillian Lawler. While authors like Diller, Finch, Husselman, Pack, and Lawler demonstrate that it was possible for scholars who earned their PhDs at public institutions to excel, their exceptional nature indicates just how difficult their achievement was.

English, especially Oxbridge MAs, seem to have particular currency in this period: Eighteen different scholars with a terminal MA from a British university published thirty-eight articles in TAPA. Oxford MAs published [End Page S-48] thirty, Cambridge six, Bristol University two. While a PhD had become the academic currency for American and Canadian scholars, MAs from Oxford and Cambridge gave scholars an opportunity to enter the academic discourses of TAPA. Publication in TAPA by Oxbridge MAs perhaps reflects a historical reality—and strategic advantage—of the early learning of the classical languages at elite institutions in Britain. The success of English MAs could suggest the importance of the status for success in the TAPA marketplace of ideas in the mid-twentieth century.

In the years 1930–67, TAPA shows how the American academic system increasingly benefited from the academic work of immigrants. The numbers of published authors include children of immigrants, e.g., Oscar Nybakken of Norwegian descent (TAPA 1939), Hilde Buttenweiser of German descent (1940), James Notopoulos of Greek descent (1946). The numbers include direct immigrants: e.g., Berthe Marti, born in Switzerland, who completed graduate work in US and published her first article in TAPA (1941); John J. H. Savage, born in County Cork, Ireland in 1883, who earned a BA from Boston College at 26 years of age, a PhD from Harvard in 1924, and published his first article in TAPA (1925, along with CP), the first year after his Harvard PhD; Gregory Vlastos, born in Turkey, who earned his BA at Roberts College of Constantinople, his PhD at Harvard, and published in TAPA in 1946, when he was teaching—his first teaching post—in Canada, after which he taught at Cornell and Princeton; Demetrius Georgacas, born in Greece, who made his career at the University of North Dakota, publishing only once in TAPA (1947), the year of his arrival to US from Greece. TAPA made space for people arriving to US for whatever reasons, a tradition first seen with Edgren in 1881.

The career of John Savage, nevertheless, suggests the limitations placed on certain groups, for, even with a Harvard PhD, Catholic institutions framed his career: a BA from Boston College; professorial posts first at Seton Hall and then Fordham. Conspicuously, Savage published eight times in TAPA in his retirement (1958, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968), the final publication (1968) at the age of 85. By contrast, another immigrant, R. J. Getty with a BA from Queen's College, Belfast and a Cambridge MA taught at St. John's College, Cambridge, then the University of Toronto, then the University of North Carolina (as Paddison professor of Latin), and he published twice in TAPA, in 1948, after he arrived in Canada, and in 1960, after he served as APA president. The power of the Oxbridge MA may be relevant here.

The example of Canada illustrates the fruitful synergy produced by immigration in this period: Twenty-nine scholars with academic positions in Canada—only three of whom earned both BA and PhD in Canada—produced fifty-two publications in TAPA. Concretely the Canadian public university [End Page S-49] system, a porous border, and TAPA gave the field of Classics T.R.S. Broughton, born in Ontario, BA from Toronto, PhD at Johns Hopkins University, who published in TAPA 1934, 1935, 1936, as he made his early career at Bryn Mawr College; G. Kirkwood, born in Toronto, BA from Toronto, who published twice in TAPA (1941, 1942, his first publications) as he completed his Hopkins PhD and made his career at Cornell University; and Marion Tate, who earned her PhD at Bryn Mawr College and made her career at Vassar College.17

In the years 1930–67 as the US accepted immigrants and academic refugees from conflict and discrimination, TAPA played an important role in the transition of Jewish scholars and others who fled to America, as they established themselves in the American academic world.18 For example, Paul Friedlander, who lost his academic post at Halle and was imprisoned at Sachsenhausen, used two articles in TAPA (1938, 1939) as his debut into American academic circles, and subsequently began publishing in other American journals in 1941 (CP, AJP). Felix Wassermann similarly used TAPA to introduce himself (1940) and published four more times (1947, 1949, 1954, 1956). He placed his scholarly work in TAPA and contemporary cultural political essays in Monatshefte (published by the University of Wisconsin). Kurt von Fritz, a Catholic who lost his University post over his resistance to a loyalty oath to Hitler, published five times in TAPA, from Reed College in 1936, and then every year after he arrived at Columbia in 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943. The publications in 1941 suggest the strategy: von Fritz published in TAPA, American Historical Review, the main publication of the American Historical Association, and in Political Science Quarterly, the annual publication of the American Academy of Political Science, established in 1886. He was introducing himself to different scholarly communities. Similarly, Hans Julius Wolff introduced himself with three APA publications: he described his APA monograph Written and Unwritten Marriages in Hellenistic and Postclassical Roman Law, published in 1939, as an unofficial Habilitationsschrift for America, and two articles in TAPA document his work at Vanderbilt (TAPA 1940) and University of Michigan (1941).19 Similarly, F. Solmsen published in TAPA in 1936, from [End Page S-50] Cambridge, UK (unaffiliated)—a rare international publication at this time—then at his first arrival from Olivet College in 1937 and 1938, then in 1940 from Cornell where he established himself (cf. 1942, 1947, 1954), then finally from Wisconsin where he moved in 1962 (TAPA 1963).20 TAPA publications track his journey to the US and his career. Considerations of space do not allow consideration of the long list of refugees and of their TAPA publications: Friedrich Walter Lenz from Germany, then Italy, then US, TAPA 1941; Angelo Segrè, from Italy, 1943; Philip Merlan, from Austria, 1943, 1946; Elias J. Bickerman, from Russia, then France, then US, 1944; A. E. Raubitschek, from Austria, 1941, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1948, 1960; Francis W. Schehl, a Catholic, from Austria, then UK, then US, 1951, not to mention Immerwahr, Fränkel, Abrahmason, Rosenmeyer, and Gruen.21 TAPA documents how the US and the American Philological Association opened its doors to scholars arriving from Europe.

Finally, TAPA documents dignity in the aftermath of disruption, war, and genocide. F. Sokolowski, a Catholic priest, survived internment in the camps at Sachsenhausen and Dachau, where he as a Polish academic and priest endured disrespect and humiliation (Malak 2012/1961: 91).22 After the war, Sokolowski resumed his writing, even though his notes for what became Lois sacrées de l'Asie mineure (Paris: Boccard, 1955) were lost during the war. The work "must have demanded no ordinary determination" (M.N. Tod, Gnomon 1956: 455). His publications trace his peregrinations as he re-started his academic work: BCH 1946 (Warsaw), Rev Arch 1948 (Warsaw), TAPA 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959 and 1960 (Paris, Gouvieux), GRBS 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974 and ZPE 1976, 1978, 1979, 1980 (Dearborn, MI, probably St. Alphonsus Church). It is unclear whether Sokolowski sought University positions after the war, whether five successive publications in TAPA were meant to facilitate or elicit an invitation for a research or teaching post. Nevertheless, a resilient Catholic and Polish survivor, he seemed to find his dignity in his work and TAPA helped.

Even as women and immigrants entered into the pages of TAPA and the American academic discourse of Classics, there are no publications authored [End Page S-51] by black scholars in this period.23 The closest that we have to a publication from a scholar of color is the printing of Frank Snowden's abstract, entitled "The Negro in Ancient Greece," in the 1946 issue of TAPA as part of the annual meeting's proceedings. Moreover, Snowden's talk was never published in TAPA, although every other talk on his panel was placed in TAPA, which might suggest racial bias. Ultimately, Snowden published his findings in 1948, in American Anthropology, the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association. Snowden appears in the Proceedings again in 1950: his paper, "The Absence of Color Prejudice in Ancient and Modern Italy," was "read by title." Snowden's two contributions represent the only mentions of African American scholarship on classical topics in TAPA between 1930 and 1967.

TAPA's silence is deafening. For black scholars and black communities had been engaging with the classical tradition after the end of the Civil War. Shelley Haley has shown how black women like Frances Jackson Coppin, Anna Julia Cooper, and Mary Church Terrell used Classics as a mode of resistance in the late 19th and early 20th century.24 By studying Greek and Latin at Oberlin College, these women defied the racial and sexist stereotypes that defined their existence. These women went on to become Latin teachers, joining a number of men and women of color who taught at the secondary school level and shared their knowledge with generations of African American students.25 The impact of these men and women is made manifest in the next generation of African American artists, whose works from early to mid-twentieth century show critical and deep engagement with the classical past.26 For example, Countee Cullen and Gwendolyn Brooks penned richly allusive works of epic and occasional poetry that repurposed Greco-Roman mythology to reflect black experiences in the early twentieth century.27 Similarly, as Patrice Rankine has observed, Ralph Ellison fused the classical tradition with a "black esthetic" to address oppression, violence, and racism faced by African Americans.28 But Classics also figured in the lives of great African American artists in more quotidian ways as well: Langston Hughes fondly recalled his experiences learning Latin [End Page S-52] with Helen Chesnutt, and Paul Robeson made use of his Latin knowledge to pay his law school tuition by working as a tutor.29

Despite the absence of black scholars from the pages of TAPA, knowledge of Greek and Latin also played a major role in black advancement in the academy. William Sanders Scarborough, who began his career as a Latin and Greek teacher, worked as a professor of Classics at Wilberforce College before becoming President of the college in the early 1900s. Similarly, W. E. B. Du Bois began his academic career alongside Scarborough as a professor of Latin and Greek at Wilberforce before taking a professorship in History and Economics at Atlanta University. Nor did Du Bois' engagement with the classical end there; classical training was to feature prominently—at first, positively, and later, negatively—in Du Bois' political philosophy of integration.30 Martin Luther King followed Du Bois' tradition of discussing the Greco-Roman past in the public political arena. By likening his role in American society to that of a gadfly in A Letter from a Birmingham Jail King used the classical tradition to lend further authority to his political strategy of civil disobedience.31 What emerges, then, is that Classics played a variety of important roles in the lives of African Americans in the twentieth century. Unfortunately, the pages of TAPA do not document black engagements with Classics, and instead reinforced the exclusionist, oppressive, and discriminatory practices that were commonplace in twentieth-century America. The absence of black engagements with Classics in the pages of TAPA reveals the distortion and the power to silence inherent in all historical archives.

the last fifty years (1968–2017)

For the years 1968–2017 the analysis relies primarily on the results of a mailed survey. This survey was sent to all published authors for whom email addresses could be found, often through querying Departments. The survey allowed us to ask published authors systematically how they self-identified, their place of origin, gender, ethnicity and race, place of PhD, and ages of Greek and Latin language acquisition.

We received 265 responses from published authors, accounting for 368/972 articles, a response rate of 38%. Examination of the data provided by the responses [End Page S-53] revealed a series of evidentiary questions and problems. The survey was not a random sample. As can be seen in Table One, the response rates to the survey increased over time, indicating that the dataset skews towards recent authors, excluding older members of the profession who may have been at the end of their career in the 1960s and 1970s and who are no longer living. Moreover, the survey proved a poor way to understand race and ethnicity. The racial and ethnic categories that authors could select ("Black," "White," "Asian," "Hispanic," "Prefer not to say") are both culturally (and temporally) constructed and individually determined. Not only do these categories mask what may be significant differences, but they also produce strong reactions that can obfuscate results: the second largest response to the question of racial identity, after "White," was "Prefer not to say." We realized that to understand more fully the narratives of race and power within our field, we needed to collect more data independent of the survey and develop a sociological toolkit to deal with the data that we have.

Table One. Response Rates Across Time
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Table One.

Response Rates Across Time

The analysis below only offers preliminary findings and leading questions that we hope to address more significantly in future publications. These findings reveal continuity and change: the success of women and international scholars in publishing in TAPA; the continued development of the public university system, both in the production of knowledge, as measured by publication, and in the training of future scholars, as measured by the ages at which students in US and Canadian universities learn Latin and become productive scholars who publish in TAPA.

In the years 1968–2017 TAPA became international, as seen in the places of employment of published authors and in their places of origin and PhD study. Fifty-seven publications in TAPA originated outside of the United States, from scholars working in Canada (twenty-two articles), UK (eighteen), Italy, Belgium, Israel, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Australia, New Zealand, and Taiwan. US scholars holding academic appointments at universities and colleges [End Page S-54] overseas published sixteen articles in TAPA, from Canada, Israel, New Zealand, and Australia; one American scholar published from Italy, Germany, and Austria (three times). The identity of the international authors is also revealing. The Canadian publications were written by three Canadian-born scholars, five scholars born in UK, one of whom earned their PhD at Cornell and another at Harvard; four scholars born in the United States, one of whom trained at the University of Toronto; two German academics, one of whom trained at the University of Michigan. TAPA's demographic landscape appears increasingly global and reflects an astonishing mobility of scholarly ideas and methods. An Austrian-born scholar trained at UC Berkeley and published in TAPA from Tübingen (2017); a Polish-born scholar educated at the University of Washington published in TAPA while teaching in Israel (1990); a scholar born in Australia, who earned a PhD at the University of Michigan, published an article from Maquarie University, Australia (1981); a scholar born in Taiwan, trained at St. Andrews, and published from Taiwan (2017). Additionally, twenty-seven immigrant scholars—drawn from UK, Canada, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, Russia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Colombia, Japan—produced thirty-one publications from academic positions in the US. Clearly, in the years 1968–2017 TAPA made space for an increasingly broad circle of international scholars to contribute to an increasingly global discourse of Classics.32

Women seem to benefit increasingly from a TAPA with a more open door. Table Two shows data for all 1968–2017 published authors compiled from TAPA itself. The raw numbers of all published women authors document the increasing success of women in placing articles in TAPA, and their increasing presence in the field: 13.3% in 1968–77, 20.2% in 1978–87, 27.6% in 1988–97, 32.3% in 1998–2007, and ultimately 35.2% in the decade 2008–17.

From the survey, 77 women authors produced 102 articles. As in earlier periods, successful women scholars published repeatedly: one author produced five articles, two authors published four times; three authors published three times; nine of the reporting authors published twice. Nevertheless, 62 authors (81%) in the period 1968–2017 published once, and all of the 24 reporting authors for the last decade (2008–17) published only once. The data show that an increasing percentage of women and a greater number of individual women authors successfully placed their work in TAPA. More success (overall publication rate of 35%) was shared by more women. A similar trend emerges [End Page S-55] in the male authors of this period. In the last decade, 75% of the reporting male authors had never published in TAPA previously. More work is necessary to understand the factors driving these changes, both throughout the larger period and within the decade.

Table Two. Authors in Tapa by Gender, 1968–2017
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Table Two.

Authors in Tapa by Gender, 1968–2017

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The survey asked published authors to identify when they began to study Latin and Greek. The results for Greek are unsurprising and almost monochromatic: most scholars learned Greek at University/College (see Table Three). The survey results for Latin language acquisition reveal a North American academic phenomenon: US and Canadian students who begin to study Latin at University become successful scholars who publish in TAPA. Fifty-six published authors, or 21.6% of all survey respondents, began to [End Page S-56] learn Latin between the ages of 17 and 21 (see Table Four).33 Moreover, respondents were divided almost equally in where they began to study Latin: public research universities, including three Canadian public universities (18/56), private research universities (18/56, including eleven students from Ivy League institutions), small, private liberal arts colleges (20/56). To be sure, early learners of Latin are still in the majority among published authors; both North American scholars and others—mainly Europeans—are included among the early learners of Latin. But the later learners of Latin are only North Americans. Furthermore, among the women survey respondents who published for the first time in TAPA in the decade 2008–17, nine out of twenty-four women were later learners of Latin (38%), among the men 27% were late learners of Latin. Finally, the names of the individual published authors who learned Latin at university/college create an impressive list of successful and productive researchers, internationally recognized, including Sather Classical Lecturers, who have moved the field forward significantly in all areas of Classics, including Latin language and literary study, Roman history, philosophy, among other areas. The survey data of the published authors reveal a specifically North American contribution to the field of Classics in the last fifty years and again suggest that the doors of the academy can be opened successfully and fruitfully to ever broader circles of potential interlocutors.

The TAPA data shows the continuing evolution of the public universities as centers for the production of knowledge. Six PhD institutions dominate in terms of TAPA publications for the 1968–2017 period: Harvard (137 publications), University of California, Berkeley (79 publications), Princeton (67 publications), Stanford (55 publications), Yale (53 publications), and University of Michigan (37 publications). The data reveal continuity and change over the last fifty years. Most notably, two public universities, Berkeley and Michigan, enter into the elite circle defined in the first decade of TAPA. Berkeley and Michigan are, moreover, not alone in gaining such prominence; UT Austin (31 articles) and UNC Chapel Hill (27 articles) also appear among the top ten publication-producing institutions during this period. The gains made by these institutions are reflected in the overall numbers: public universities produce 31% of the articles that appear in TAPA during this period and at no point does the market share of research drop below 26%. Yet alongside the progress made by the aforementioned universities and the group as a whole, the data shows the steady decline of research in Classical Studies at a number of public institutions. For example, Illinois, the leading public institution [End Page S-57]

Table 3 - No description available
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Table 3.

Table 4 - No description available
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Table 4.

of the previous period, drops from 39 publications to 13, with only two of those publications coming in the last two decades. Similarly, Iowa, among the most prolific producers of scholarship in the previous period with 15 publications, accounts for only three in the last 50 years. While research in the field of Classics is thriving at a select few public universities, other institutions find themselves in a more precarious position. To be sure, the focus on the publication record of TAPA perhaps obscures other factors, e.g., the establishment of in-house journals like Illinois Classical Studies in 1976 in the United States and of Phoenix by the Classical Association of Canada in 1946. Corroborating TAPA's data requires further study of other national journals. [End Page S-58]

The publishing patterns of the top six institutions nevertheless document the continued dominance of a small group of elite institutions in classical scholarship. The top six PhD institutions are responsible for 46% of publications for this period, a number that is comparable to the proportion of publications by the top six (52%) in the previous period.34 The record of publication by Harvard PhDs best illustrates the dominance and how it is perpetuated. For the period under consideration, Harvard PhDs rank first in the number of publications, as they did in the previous era, increasing their market share of publications from 11 to 15%. They are not only the most productive institution for the entire period, but they easily maintain that spot in each of the five decades. A similar situation can be seen in the case of Oxford and Cambridge PhDs. Although the terminal Oxford and Cambridge MAs have largely disappeared from the pages of TAPA, there is a marked increase in the number of Oxford and Cambridge PhDs producing articles in TAPA over the last two decades. In that twenty-year period, Oxford ranks as fourth in publications (15 articles), and Cambridge follows close behind in seventh place (14 articles). This level of production represents a 15% increase over the previous two decades for Oxford and an astonishing 433% increase for Cambridge. The data show that while more scholars participate in the discourse of classical scholarship, the foremost institutions nevertheless maintain their space at the table.

One-hundred fifty years of TAPA track the evolving roles of North American public universities, the increasing contributions of women, and the expanding presence of international scholars in the academic discourses curated by TAPA. A double narrative of progress and precariousness characterizes this history. The pages of TAPA document real social progress made by the field over the last 150 years, but they testify to the hard-won and oftentimes fragile success of newcomers, women, immigrants/refugees. TAPA has moreover erased the achievements of scholars of color, reflecting and reproducing dynamics of power. But analysis of TAPA shows that doors have been opened in the past, for immigrants, for refugees, for women, for new learners of the classical languages, although neither easily nor without retrenchment, to the great benefit of our field. The tradition of expanding constituencies of TAPA leaves no excuse for exclusion of any group from the marketplace of ideas and indeed suggests a path forward. [End Page S-59]

Roberta Stewart
Dartmouth College
Dominic Machado
College of the Holy Cross

works cited

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Calder, W. 1992. "The Refugee Classical Scholars in the USA: An Evaluation of their Contribution." ICS 17: 153–73.
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Flom, G. T. 1907. "A History of Scandinavian Studies in American Universities." Iowa Studies in Language and Literature 11: 21–22.
Haley, S. P. 1993. "Black Feminist Thought and Classics: Re-membering, Re-claiming, Re-empowering." In Rabinowitz, N. S. and Richlin, A. eds. Feminist Theory and the Classics. New York: Routledge. 23–43.
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_______. 2016. "Classical Education and the Advancement of African American Women from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century." In Wyles, R. and Hall, E. eds. Unsealing the Fountain: Pioneering Female Classical Scholars from the Renaissance to the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 176–93.
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Footnotes

1. Thanks are due to Ward W. Briggs, whose Database of Classical Scholars (https://dbcs.rutgers.edu/) greatly facilitated our work. We stand on the shoulders of giants.

3. Dan-el Padilla Peralta, "Racial Equity and the Production of Knowledge," paper, as part of the panel, The Future of Classics, SCS Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, January 5, 2019.

4. Studied at Yale, withdrew; MA 1850; Instructor at Yale 1873–83; President, Connecticut Historical Society 1863–89; http://www.nasonline.org/publications/biographical-memoirs/memoir-pdfs/trumbull-james.pdf.

5. Identified by salutation (Miss, Mrs.) or by obviously gender female name, e.g., Bella: Miss Alice R. Boise (IL), Miss Mary L. Booth (NY), Professor Elisee Charlier, Principal of Charlier Institute for Young Ladies (NY), Miss E. H. Denio (NY), Miss M. B. Flint (NY), Miss Helen M. French, Mount Holyoke Seminary (MA), Miss E. L. Geiger, Vassar College (NY), Bela P. Mockoon (NY), Miss Julia E. Ward, Mount Holyoke Seminary (MA), Mrs. A. E. Weston, Antioch College (OH).

6. See the obituary (1936, Jan. 19) "Charles P. G. Scott: Philologist Was The Etymological Editor of Century Dictionary," New York Times (1923–Current File). Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.dartmouth.idm.oclc.org/docview/101975148.

7. Edgren's career resembles the academic nomad: Born in Sweden, Edgren studied at Uppsala (1858); then emigrated to the US, joined the 99th New York regiment as an officer in January 1862, and fought in the Civil War; returned to Sweden in 1863; studied in Germany and France, 1867–68; returned to the US to study at Cornell 1870–71, earning a BA, then to Yale where he earned a PhD in 1874; returned to Sweden 1880–85; returned to US to the University of Nebraska 1885–1901. On his career, see Flom 1907: 21–22.

8. "Report of the Committee of Twelve on Courses of Study in Latin and Greek for Secondary Schools," TAPA 30 (1899) lxxix–cxxii, especially cxvi–cxxii, Appendices B ("On the Enrollment of Pupils in the Various Studies in the Public and Private Secondary Schools of the United States for the Years 1890–98") and C ("Geographical Distribution of Classical Students in the Secondary Schools of the United States in 1889–90 and in 1897–98").

9. "Proceedings," TAPA 1893: list of registered attendees (i–ii), members (iii–v), General Sessions on 12 July (xxii) and 14 July (l); invitation of General Sessions (iii n. 1).

10. Appendix: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Annual Session, Bryn Mawr, Pa., 1897. (1897). TAPA 28: lxi–lxv.

11. Grant Showerman (1900), Leon J. Richardson (1901), James Turney Allan (1902), George Fiske (1909), A. E. R. Boak (1921), Walter Miller (1921), Henry B. Dewing (1922), Stanley Barney Smith (1926), Roy Kenneth Hack (1929), William Pugsley (1929).

13. Briggs 1994: 392 doesn't list the early publications.

14. She published her first articles in 1911, in TAPA and AJP, and her final article in 1940.

15. Rutgers Databank of Classical Scholars, s.v. Hahn, Emma Adelaide. https://dbcs.rutgers.edu/all-scholars/8757-hahn-emma-adelaide.

16. Terry G. Wilfong, on the website Breaking Ground: Women in Old World Archaeology, by Martha Sharp Joukowsky and Barbara S. Lesko. Brown University. https://www.brown.edu/Research/Breaking_Ground/bios/Husselman_Elinor%20Mullett.pdf.

18. On the intellectual contributions of Diasporic scholars, see Hallett's contribution in this volume. For a brief survey of their effects on curriculum and research agendas, Calder 1992: 153–73.

19. Thür 1984: 478: "Mit einem Stapel eigener Bücher auf dem Kleiderschrank und den auf Ferienreisen angefertigten Exzerpten bereitete Wolff in Panama seine „inoffizielle Habilitationsschrift für Amerika" (Brief 1936, S. 10) vor, sein Buch 'Written and Unwritten Marriages,' von der American Philological Association 1939 herausgebracht."

20. Knight: 1932, 1935, 1941; A.-J. Festugière in 1954, in French; J. A. Davison and B. S. J. Isserlin, 1955 from Leeds; and Sokolowski (see infra).

21. Schehl, a Catholic, lost his position at the University of Graz in April 1938 and emigrated to UK and then to the US, where he changed his name, and got a teaching position at a preparatory school, the Priory School in Portsmouth, Rhode Island. Offered back his university position after the war, he refused it and remained a teacher at the Priory School. His academic publications, including TAPA 1951, begin after the war and the refusal of his old teaching position.

23. Between 1968 and 2017, we have identified two black scholars, one African scholar with a PhD from Princeton and one American scholar with a PhD from Harvard. The contributions of persons of colors throughout this period deserve a more sustained treatment (see our preliminary comments and plans for future publication of our data infra).

30. See also the contribution of Murray in this volume.

31. Becker 2000: 181–89; Strunk 2010: 124–42. See also Dominic Machado, "Martin Luther King's Radical Philology," paper, as a part of a panel, Classics and Social Justice: Works in Progress, Working toward Progress, CANE Annual Meeting, Worcester, MA, March 10, 2019.

32. There is a necessary caveat here, that the survey results need further study with a deeper analysis of the complete Tables of Contents, 1968–2017, in order to understand better the actual numbers of international participation, and limitations on participation.

33. One scholar submitted the same survey twice, a dittography of sorts, hence the correct response total is 56, and for the 18 years old group, a reduction of one, to twenty.

34. There is some indication that this dominance is starting to ease out. In the last decade, the top six account for only 34% of all publications, but it is too soon to claim this as a sustained trend.

Additional Information

ISSN
2575-7199
Print ISSN
2575-7180
Pages
S-39-S-60
Launched on MUSE
2019-12-03
Open Access
No
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