This is a preprint

Stephen C. Angle has translated the core idea “Li” (理) in Neo-Confucianism as “Coherence,” which denotes “the valuable, intelligible way that things fit together.” With his definition, Angle has virtually redefined Li and, his idea of Li inclining to Wang Chuanshan’s (王船山) idea instead of Zhu Xi’s (朱熹) or Wang Yangming’s (王阳明), he relies heavily on it to develop his account of Neo-Confucianism. As a result, he has had to downplay both the ontological and the immanent aspects of the expressions in the sources he relies on. This article reveals where Angle’s interpretation departs from the original ideas in the source texts, and indicates why his theory of the cultivation of virtue implies that external factors could be an obstruction to moral improvement.


Stephen C. Angle, Coherence, Wang Chuanshan, Zhu Xi, Wang Yangming


Additional Information

Print ISSN
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.