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This paper examines two manuscript ritual manuals titled Hwaǒm yemun (華嚴禮文) from the late Chosǒn period preserved in the Old Books Collection of the Dongguk University Library. The first is dated to 1767 with the name Pak Chinhae 朴震海 on the cover, and the second was assembled by an unknown hand in 1891. The differences between the texts suggest the evolution and amplification of Hwaǒm-oriented liturgy in late premodern Korea. By examining the structures of and the ritual procedures delineated in these two documents, scholars gain a clearer picture of how the Avataṃsaka-sūtra was worshipped in Korean Buddhism as the capstone or culmination of the monastic curriculum for Sǒn monks. In addition, these texts further our understanding of how ritual functioned as a means of articulating doctrinal and devotional classifications, as a procedure for reinforcing mainstream Mahāyāna doctrines and aspirations, and as a malleable framework for making of vows and invocations, performing penance, and chanting efficacious spells.


Buddhism, Chosǒn period 1392–1910, Buddhist ritual, Avataṃsaka-sūtra, Buddhist ritual texts, Buddhist manuscripts


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