The Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus organised the Enosis Referendum in Cyprus on 15th January 1950. The 1950 referendum played a role in the construction of identity for Cypriots under British colonial rule by integrating ethnic differences with symbols and ceremonies. In 2017, the Parliament of Cyprus decided to commemorate the referendum’s date in schools. This decision indicates that this referendum has a significant role in the construction of identity and its transmission to future generations. This study aims to deduce the importance of this referendum in the construction of identity for Turkish and Greek Cypriots. Turkish and Greek Cypriot identity is based on ethnicity, and it is maintained in that way. Today, its existence is being strengthened by the use of historical events and symbols. This study addresses the Enosis Referendum and the construction of Turkish and Greek Cypriot ethnic identity in the framework of Anthony Smith’s social construction approach and formation of ethnic identity, as well as at the local level.