Drawing on cross-sectional data from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) repeated at three time points, this article studies whether and how the gendered division of housework changed between 1994 and 2012 across 21 countries. Large transformations toward greater gender equality at the societal level during this period (i.e., gender equality norms, the share of women with higher education, and women's employment rate) are analyzed in relation to potential changes in the division of housework at the individual level. The results reveal a general change toward an equalization in the division of housework over the two studied decades. To a certain extent, these changes are related to corresponding changes at the societal level, particularly in relation to increases in the employment rate of women. In addition, the pace of change over time varies across countries clustered in different family-policy models. The models became increasingly similar to one another during the analyzed period. Demonstrating a greater change in the conservative models in relation to the dual earner countries.


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pp. 355-377
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