A Collection of Italian Librettos:A New Source for the Study of the Central European Reception of Italian Opera during the Mid-Eighteenth Century
This article examines a private collector's bound volume of six librettos of Italian operas performed in both The Hague and London between 1752 and 1762. The source is of particular interest due to a pair of its enclosed titles—L'Arcadia in Brenta and Il filosofo convinto in amore—neither of which has ever been registered in any bibliographical catalogue of reference.
Cet article examine un volume relié appartenant à un collectionneur privé contenant six livrets d'opéras italiens, interprétés à La Haye et à Londres entre 1752 et 1762. La source est d'un intérêt particulier en raison de deux titres contenus dans le volume–L'Arcadia in Brenta et Il filosofo convinto in amore–Aucun de ces livrets n'a jamais été répertorié dans aucun catalogue bibliographique de référence.
Dieser Beitrag untersucht sechs aus einer Privatsammlung stammende und in einem Band zusammengebundene Libretti italienischer Opern, die in Den Haag bzw. London zwischen 1752 und 1762 aufgeführt wurden. Die Quelle ist besonders interessant, weil zwei der enthaltenen Titel–L'Arcadia in Brenta und Il filosofo convinto in amore–bisher in keinerlei bibliografischer Publikation nachgewiesen wurden.
Marble paper lining the inside of its rusted binding, a spine bearing a double shelf mark label (Figure 1), which indicated its particular location within the private library to which it belonged, this volume opens to reveal a half-dozen librettos sewn within. The six librettos were printed in The Hague and in London between 1752 and 1763, and together represent a simple, but significant example of the European reaffirmation and expansion of the Italian operatic model during the middle of the eighteenth century. The study of two of these librettos in particular—L'Arcadia in Brenta and Il filosofo convinto in amore—arouses particular scholarly interest given that they are not included in any of the genre's principal catalogues and bibliographies. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the cataloguing of these now-recovered copies for future scholarship, which might, in turn, yield a musical reconstruction of the operas contained in these librettos.
Interestingly, the order in which the librettos appear in this volume is not chronological; they are as follows1:
1. Il filosofo convinto in amore (La Haya: Antonio de Groot e figli, 1752).
2. Orione, o sia Diana vendicata (Londres: G. Woodfall, 1763).
3. Il tutore e la pupilla, o sia Il matrimonio alla moda (Londres: G. Woodfall, 1762).
4. La Cascina (Londres: G. Woodfall, 1763).
5. Astarto, Re di Tiro (Londres: G. Woodfall, 1762).
6. L'Arcadia in Brenta (Londres: G. Woodfall, 1755). [End Page 263]
With the exception of the first of this group, printed in The Hague in 1752, the librettos situate their owner (whose identity remains a mystery) amidst the London theatre scene at a time of significant musical activity, as the city was the inheritor of the ascendant Italian genre imported during the first half of the century2. This volume was acquired from the antiquarian bookshop, García Prieto, located at 123 Alcalá Street in Madrid. The seller indicated that the previous owner had been a member of a noble family whose residence in the Spanish capital was situated near the Royal Palace. The seller, however, failed to provide additional information regarding this noble's identity, but he was able to report that the present volume belonged to a larger collection of books from the family's library. Items in the collection apparently spanned from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century, thereby attesting to the family's proclivity for collecting over successive generations. [End Page 264]
Each of the librettos are herein examined in detail, with particular attention given to those that have not been previously catalogued. This will bring greater clarity to the operatic milieu in which these works were conceived and, consequently, will highlight the importance of a heritage that has been underappreciated until today, and which deserves recognition and dissemination commensurate with its historical significance. This source serves then as documentation for the relationship between Italian music of the period and some of the principal London theatres of the time.
Il filosofo convinto in amore (The Hague: Antonio de Groot e figli, 1752)
The first libretto in this volume requires special attention given that the "Catalogo Sartori" only lists the editions of Berlin (Haude und Spener, 1750), Prague (Ignazio Pruscha, 1752), Mannheim (Stamperia Elettorale apresso Nicola Pierron, 1753), Bonn (Ferdinando Rommerskirchen, 1757), and once again, Mannheim (Stamperia elettorale ed accademica, 1771)3. However, this early Hague publication is not listed, nor do other copies appear in the principal online catalogue databases. The divertimento libretto (although it was, in fact, made up of three divertimenti, called intermezzi respectively in the 1750 Berlin and 1753 Mannheim versions) does coincide with the first edition in Berlin, with the exception of the casting of the principal role, performed by Domenico Cricchi in the Prussian premiere4 and by Giuseppe Ferrini two years later in The Hague. In both cases, the role of Lesbina was performed by Rosa Ruvinetti Bon (fl. 1730–1762), wife of the librettist, Girolamo Bon (ca. 1700–ca. 1766).
As seen on the libretto's title page (Figure 2), the opera was performed in 1752 in the "Nuovo Teatro di Haia", in what is today the now-demolished New Hague Theatre on Casuaristraat5. The proximity of the dates lends itself to the hypothesis that this performance was linked to the reinauguration—following a fire in March 1746—of the Theater van het Tapissierspand (Theatre of the Tapestry Hall) in Antwerp in September 1752. The celebration opened with La citella ingannata, composed by Johann Friedrich Agricola (1720–1774) to a text by Girolamo Bon. Both the composer and the librettist were residents of the court of Frederick the Great of Prussia and would have had to travel for the occasion from Berlin to Antwerp and The Hague, accompanied by a group of Italian singers. Besides the aforementioned Rosa Ruvinetti Bon and Giuseppe Ferrini, the cast of La citella ingannata included Margherita Barberini, Cristiano Todeschino, and Berenice Penni6. Bearing in mind that the libretto of Il filosofo indicates the roles of Lesbina and Anselmo were assigned to Rosa Ruvinetti Bon and Giuseppe Ferrini, it is easy to situate the performance of this divertimento, also with Agricola's music, during the group's tour. Given their previous use as intermezzi, it is possible that the divertimenti of Il filosofo could have been played between the acts of La citella ingannata in Antwerp, and that both [End Page 265] works could have also been presented in The Hague in commemoration of the new theatre's inauguration.
Orione, o sia Diana vendicata (London: G. Woodfall, 1763)
The "Catalogo Sartori" lists four copies of this libretto, with text by Giovanni Gualberto Bottarelli (fl. 1741–1783): one in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, another in the British Library in London, and two in the United States: in the Yale University Library and the New York Public Library7. Nevertheless, and in addition to the present copy examined here (Figure 3), I have also located two additional copies in the Staatliche Bibliothek Ansbach and in the library of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). [End Page 266]
Orione premiered on 19 February 17638 and represented Johann Christian Bach's first opera commission from the King's Theatre, London. The success the production must have enjoyed is attested to by various publications issued by the printing house of John Walsh shortly after its opening9. First, a selection of eight arias10 was printed. The overture was also included in a publication with the individual instrumental parts from five other operas—Artaserse, La Cascina, La Calamità, Il tutore e la pupila, and Astarto—all with [End Page 267] music by J. C. Bach11. Moreover, the overture was also included in a collection of reductions for keyboard instruments along with the overtures to Zanaida, Artaserse, La Cascina, and Astarto (again by Bach), and an Overture in D Major attributed to Baldassare Galuppi (Figure 4)12.
Il tutore e la pupilla, o sia Il matrimonio alla moda (London: G. Woodfall, 1762)
In addition to the two copies Sartori records as held by the British Library and the Yale University Library13, four additional copies have also been located in the Biblioteca Nazionale "Vittorio Emanuele III" in Naples; in the Huntington Library in San Marino, California; in the Universitätsbibliothek in Rostock; and in the UCLA Library. According to the libretto, this was a pasticcio opera14 premiering on 13 November 1762 under Bach's direction. Walsh's cited publication of the instrumental parts from six overtures, among which is included that for this work, further allows the music to be attributed to the [End Page 268] London Bach. In contrast, however, the origin of the rest of this opera's music remains a mystery. As is known, and further confirmed by Saskia Willaert, in burlette such as these, it was a relatively common practice to switch out some arias with those from other operas, giving rise to the hypothesis that the music for the aria "Ha un gusto" originated in Orazio by Pietro Auletta (1737)15. On the other hand, in what appears to bear witness to the habitual practices of the day, the libretto also shows that neither the text from the fifth and eighth scenes of the third act, nor the majority of the arias, adhered to the original Giovanni Gulaberto Bottarelli text. Nevertheless, the libretto does not specify how this substitution could have been carried out. However, the discrepancy between the present libretto text and those of other Italian librettos opens itself to the following deductions concerning a possible literary borrowing:
–Aria "Care pupille belle" (Act 1, scene 2): Il Don Tabarano, by Bernardo Saddumene, with music by J. A. Hasse (1728)
–Aria "Ha un gusto da stordire" (Act 1, scene 4): Il maestro di musica, by Antonio Palomba, with music by Florian Johann Deller (1752)16
–Aria "Son buona buona" (Act 2, scene 3): L'isola disabitata, by Carlo Goldoni, with music by Giuseppe Scarlatti (1757)
–Aria "Ah, crudel, vuoi tu che pianga" (Act 2, scene 6): Le matti per amore, by Carlo Goldoni, with music by Gioacchino Cocchi (1754)
–Aria "Voi che adorate il vanto" (Act 3, scene 1): Cleofide, by Pietro Metastasio, with music by J. A. Hasse (1731)
–Aria "Corre al mondo un'opinione" (Act 3, scene 3): Le virtuose ridicole, by Carlo Goldoni, with music by B. Galuppi (1752)
–Act 3, scene 5: Amore figlio del piacere, by Antonio Palomba, with music by Nicola Bonifacio Logroscino y Giuseppe Ventura (1751)
–Act 3, scene 8: La buona figliuola, by Carlo Goldoni, with music by N. Piccini (1760)
This literary attribution thus leads to the hypothesis of an analogous musical creation, entailing the importation of the musical parts of these arias and their subsequent composition in Il tutore e la pupilla as a pasticcio opera (Figure 5).
La Cascina (London: G. Woodfall, 1763)
Although the Sartori catalogue mentions only a single exemplar of this libretto (Figure 6)—in the British Library17—the inclusion of its symphony in the already cited publication of transcriptions for keyboard instruments of overtures by Johann Christian Bach (see footnote 13) testifies to the popularity it enjoyed as early as 1763, in parallel to its presentation at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket on 8 January 1763. We are, therefore, dealing with a very early printed copy, with only one other known extant copy. This fact likewise attests to a performance quite contemporaneous with the premiere of an opera whose reception likely suggests a composer as important as Johann Christian Bach. [End Page 269]
Again, we find ourselves with yet another pasticcio opera, under the direction of J. C. Bach. In this case, the text's credited author is Goldoni, although Bottarelli adapted it to suit the London stage18. Comparing the libretto in hand with the original Goldoni text19 allows us to affirm that, in broad strokes, the transformation20 consists of the following:
(1). Shortening of the dialogue (Act 1: scenes 1, 2, 4, and 7; Act 2: scenes 1, 5, and 6; Act 3: scenes 4 and 5, a duet for Lena and Pipo, "Sposi già siamo", in scene 7), and some arias (Act 1, Cecca's aria "Con cento pastorelli" and Lavinia's "L'amante tortorella"; Act 3: elimination of scenes 1, 2, and 6 from the original).
(2). Substitution of passages (Act 1, scene 4: Costanzo's aria "Se per un dolce affetto"; Act 1, scenes 6 and 7: Lavinia's aria "Tutta di sdegno armata"; Act 2, scene 8: Pippo's aria "Signor, sì; Lenina mia") and the character exchange (Act 2, scene 9: dialogue [End Page 270] between Berto and the Count in the original, versus that between Cecca and Pippo in the later version; Act 3, scene 5 employing text from scene 1 of Act 3 from the original—and scene 6).
(3). Insertion of new fragments (Act 1, scene 2: appearance of Lena and Pippo's aria "Sò far la semplicetta"; Act 2, scenes 1 and 2: Costanzo's arias "Pastorello tutto il dì", "Fedele, e costante", and "Sò che pastor son io"; Act 2, scene 6: Berto's aria "Staremo in allegria"; Act 2, scene 7: Cecca's aria "Pippo caro, poverino"; Act 2, scene 10; Act 3, scene 1: Costanzo's aria "Ti parla il core"; Act 3, scene 2: Lavinia's aria "Aprimi il petto"; Act 3, scene 3: Lena's aria "Non son bella, non sono vezzosa"; Act 3, scene 4: the Count's aria "Che dolce cosa per me è l'amar").
This extensive connection between the libretto and the original Goldoni text has led Michael Burden to attribute the music from this London performance of La Cascina to its original author Giuseppe Scolari (ca. 1720–ca. 1774)21. Nonetheless, and based on the source itself ("The music is selected from various celebrated authors, and performed [End Page 271] under the direction of Mr. John Bach, a Saxon master of music"22), Burden's position is untenable. At most, one might venture that Scolari's music might serve as a base, but would be completed and substituted in line with the libretto's cited changes (1, 2, 3, ut supra). Along these lines, the following hypotheses concerning musical attributions have been established, consonant with some of the textual insertions mentioned above:
–Act 1, scene 2: Pippo's aria "Sò far la semplicetta". This corresponds to Nerina's aria in Act 1, scene 2 of Le pescatrice, with text by Goldoni and music by Ferdinando Bertoni in its 1751 original.
–Act 2, scene 2: Costanzo's aria "Sò che pastor son io". This corresponds to Aminta's aria in the second scene of Act 1 from Il re pastore by Metastasio, which, since its 1751 premiere with music by Giuseppe Bonno, had been adapted by numerous composers (Arvid Niclas von Höpken and Giuseppe Sarti ; Johann Adolph Hasse and Francesco Uttini ; Maria Agnesi, Christoph Willibald Gluck, and Davide Perez ; Antonio Maria Mazzoni ; Baldassare Galuppi and Giovanni Battista Lampugnani ; Niccolò Piccinni and Giuseppe Zonca ; and Franz Xaver Richter, ). It is impossible to determine which of these versions Johann Christian Bach modeled his own work on, although perhaps the performance most easily accessible to him would have been Hasse's rendition, performed in London in 175723.
–Act 3, scene 1: Costanzo's aria "Ti parla il core". This corresponds to the protagonist's aria in Act 2 of Sesostri, re di Egitto, from the original libretto by Pietro Pariati. The numerous musical adaptations of this text since Francesco Gasparini's original of 1710 (itself successively revised), include the versions of Giovanni Bononcini (1716); Francesco Bartolomeo Conti and Andrea Stefano Fiorè (1717); Domingo Terradellas (1751); Gioacchino Cocchi (1752); Galuppi (1757); and Carlo Ignazio Monza and Gregorio Sciroli (1759). In this case, it is possible that the revision chosen was that of Monza, performed before a London audience in 1759, and therefore, still relatively recent by 1763.
–Act 3, scene 2: Lavinia's aria "Aprimi il petto". Its model is an aria of the same name by N. Piccinni, an exemplar of which is conserved in the British Library (GB-Lbm, Add. 14224).
–Act 3, scene 3: Lena's aria "Non son bella, non sono vezzosa". This comes from Cetronella's aria in Act 1, scene 13 of I portentosi effetti della madre natura, which opened in 1752 with music by Giuseppe Scarlatti to a text by Goldoni.
–Act 3, scene 4: the Count's aria "Che dolce cosa per me è l'amar". This aria is derived from that performed by Pirotto in Act I, scene 4 of I bagni d'Abano, which opened in 1753, with text by Goldoni and the music a result of the collaboration between the composers Ferdinando Bertoni and Baldassare Galuppi.
The textual links between these arias inserted in the version of the libretto Bottarelli adapted to London's tastes, and juxtaposed with previous works, makes it feasible to imagine possible musical substitutions over the original Scolari music. [End Page 272]
Astarto, Re di Tiro (London, G. Woodfall, 1762)
This libretto (Figure 7) matches one of the titles from the 1762–1763 season, which was performed on 4 December24. Sartori lists only a single extant copy in the British Library25. As the source itself indicates, the libretto's text derives from the tragedies of Astarto and Amalasunta by Philippe Quinault. Both were subsequently adapted by Apostolo Zeno and Pietro Pariati (1708), and then later adapted once more by Paolo Antonio Rolli (1715). The opera was performed in London in 172026 and would have been revised by Bottarelli [End Page 273] to accommodate the "latest tastes", with the exception of certain arias that seem to have retained their original text27.
Regarding the music, the London libretto indicates that many of its arias had been taken from different authors; the exceptions were those asterisked to denote J. C. Bach's authorship (see Table 1)28. Thus, if a good portion of the arias are said to have come from other authors, it can be understood that the Giovanni Bononcini original inspired the remaining musical numbers. Along this line, I have included a summary table below of the opera's arias and their corresponding literary attributions, as well as the previous different musical versions which were based on each libretto and which could have served as a feasible source (having been performed earlier in the same London space) as part of the musical reconstruction of the 1762 performance dealt with here.
Ernest Warburton attributes authorship of five arias to Johann Christian Bach, which are, no doubt, the following:
–Arias for Clearco and Fenicio (Act 1, scenes 3 and 4, respectively), included in Artaserse by J. C. Bach and performed in the Teatro Regio di Torino in 1760. All are obtainable through the opera exemplars conserved in the British Library, the archives of the Accademia Filarmonica Torino, and Lisbon's Biblioteca da Ajuda.
–Clearco's aria (Act 1, scene 6), of which an arrangement for violins and continuo by Georg Anton Walter is still conserved in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (D-B, Mus.ms. 22530).
–Clearco's aria (Act 2, scene 6), whose attribution is confirmed by the symbol appearing next to the text in the libretto, and the arias of Nino and Elisa in Act 3, but whose music has been lost.
–Elisa's aria (Act 3, scene 3), which probably originated in Catone in Utica, presented by J. C. Bach in Naples' Teatro San Carlo in 1761. The text and music have been lost.
L'Arcadia in Brenta (London, G. Woodfall, 1755)
Again, this libretto is not listed in Sartori, but I have located, in addition to the present exemplar under study, another in the Huntington Library. This edition was presented in the Theatre of Covent Garden on 18 November 175429, five years after its premiere in 1749. As the source indicates, the symphony, as well as the following arias and choral parts (marked with a printer's asterisk in the libretto; see Table 2) included music by Vincenzo Ciampi (ca. 1719–1762), who would have thus supplanted the Galuppi original. Furthermore, the text of Fabrizio's aria in the first act ("Non m'avete ancor capito") replaced the original text by Goldoni ("Vogliamo fare quel che ci pare"). [End Page 274]
[End Page 275]
It is possible to thereby affirm the positions of Libby, Willaert, and Jackman that Ciampi was present in London in December of 1754. According to these authors, he coincided with the performance of Bertoldo in Covent Garden; and according to the London source presented above, he likewise coincided with the performance of L'Arcadia in Brenta30 (Figure 8).
In short, the source presently under study, while representing only a small sample of the intense opera activity that had bloomed in London (and The Hague) in the middle decades of the eighteenth century, does signify a valuable contribution, as much quantitative as qualitative, to the understanding and cataloguing of the librettos that are found in it (in particular, due to the inclusion in the same collection of the two unicum: Il filosofo convinto in amore and L'Arcadia in Brenta).
These works additionally offer the chance to formulate hypotheses concerning the composition of pasticcio opera, working from a reconstruction of its text. The importance of the authors appearing in the collection—composers such as Johann Christian Bach, Hasse, Galuppi, and Piccinni, as well as librettists essential to the genre's development in the eighteenth century, such as Metastasio and Goldoni—likewise confirm the significance of the present source material and affirms the continued presence in Europe of cutting-edge Italian opera, performed by Italian companies, and adapted to local tastes. [End Page 276]
Thus, studying the literary composition of the libretto represents a first step in reconstructing the original operatic performance, which subsequently entails the compilation, editing, and when necessary, adaptation of the musical sources based upon the samples conserved therein. The difficulties inherent in this process derive as much from the variety and divergence among the musical sources as from the occasional difficulty in locating—or even the non-existence of—the music. These difficulties, therefore, compel the musicologist to make editorial decisions that, in our case, would revolve around the sound restitution of these works in accordance with their performance in the mid-eighteenth-century London scene.
Finally, as these librettos were acquired through an antiquarian book dealer and proceed from an inheritance affiliated with a noble residence near the Royal Palace of Madrid, they point to a book-based connection between the London opera scene and the Spanish ambit, exercised through the diplomatic relations of the Spanish Court in England. [End Page 277]
Nieves Pascual León (firstname.lastname@example.org) is Professor of Musicology at the Conservatorio Superior de Música in Valencia, Spain. She holds an MBA (2011) and a Ph.D. in Music from the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (2015). Her dissertation on the pedagogical works of Leopold Mozart formed the basis of her first book, the first critical translation into Spanish of Leopold Mozart's treatise on the violin, Violinschule (Sant Cugat: Arpegio, 2013). León's most recent book is a study of the interpretation of instrumental music around 1750 (Salamanca: USAL, 2016). She has also published extensively in the principal musicology journals of Spain (Anuario Musical, Nassare, Boletín AEDOM, Quodlibet), as well as in other journals, including the Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music (forthcoming) and Ad Parnassum.
This article is part of the research project I+D+I, National Programme for Research Aimed at the Challenges of Society, with the specific topic El patrimonio musical de la España moderna (siglos XVII–XVIII): recuperación, digitalización, análisis, recepción y estructuras retóricas de los discursos musicales [Musical Heritage of Modern Spain (17th–18th centuries): Recovery, Digitalisation, Analysis, Reception, and Rhetorical Structures of Musical Discourses] (HAR2017-86039-C2-1-P).
1. The chronological span in the collection could be attributed to a multitude of reasons, which, at the moment, elude us: perhaps merely a zeal for collecting on the part of the owner, who had gathered the contents to store them in a library, or to be able to transport and use them when at the theatre, etc.
2. William Hayman Cummings. "The Lord Chamberlain and Opera in London, 1700–1740", Proceedings of the Musical Association 40 (1913–1914): 37–72.
3. With codes 10342–10346; see Claudio Sartori, I Libretti italiani a stampa dalle origini fino al 1800. Catalogo analitico con 16 indici (Cuneo: Bertola & Locatelli Editori, 1991), Vol. III (E–K), 170–171.
4. See the copy conserved in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (5 in: Mus. T 58).
6. Timothy de Paepe. "«Les operas etaient en vogue». Opera in a City in Crisis: Antwerp between 1682 and 1794", in Music and the City. Musical Cultures and Urban Societies in the Southern Netherlands and Beyond, c. 1650–1800, eds. Stefanie Beghein, Bruno Blondé and Eugen Schreurs (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2013), 19–38 at 29.
7. With code 17476; see Claudio Sartori, Vol. IV (L–Q), 327.
8. Michael Burden. Regina Mingotti: Diva and Impresario at the King's Theatre, London (London and New York: Routledge, 2016), 94.
9. Ernest Warburton. The Collected Works of Johann Christian Bach 1735–1782. Thematic Catalogue and Music Supplement (New York: Garland, 1999).
10. Johann Christian Bach. The Favourite Songs in the Opera call'd Orione, ossia Diana vendicata (London: I. Walsh, ).
11. Johann Christian Bach. Six Favorite Overtures in 8 parts for violins, hoboys, french horns with a bass for the harpsicord and violoncello compos'd by Sig.r Bach (London: I. Walsh, ).
12. Johann Christian Bach. Six Favourite Opera Overtures Set for the Harpsicord or Organ Compos'd by Sig.r Bach (London: I. Walsh, ).
13. With code 24159; see Claudio Sartori, Vol. V (R–Z), 417.
14. "The music is selected from various celebrated authors, and performed under the direction of Mr. John Bach, a Saxon master of music".
15. Saskia Willaert. "Italian Comic Opera at the King's Theatre in the 1760s: The Role of the Buffi", in Music in Eighteenth-Century Britain, ed. David Wyn Jones (New York: Routledge, 2016), 17–71 at 27.
16. Pasticcio from the Orazzio by Auletta, cited above in relation to the musical attribution made by S. Willaert. Thus, is verified the double derivation, musical and textual (confirming S. Willaert's hypothesis) of the aria "Ha un gusto da stordire".
17. With code 5168; see Claudio Sartori, Vol. II (C–D), 79–80.
18. "The poetry is from Signor Goldoni, adapted to the King's Theatre by Signor Giovan Gualberto Bottarelli".
19. Polisseno Fegejo [Carlo Goldoni]. La Cascina. Dramma giocoso per musica (Venice: Angiolo Geremia, 1756).
20. The enumeration of scenes refers to the London version and not to the original Goldoni text.
21. Michael Burden. Regina Mingotti, 94.
22. As seen here, this identical quote appears earlier in the same source: Il tutore e la pupilla libretto (see footnote 15).
23. Idem, 74.
24. Burden, 94.
25. With code 3257; see Claudio Sartori, Vol. I (A–B): 345.
26. Charles Burney. A General History of Music, from the Earliest Ages to the Present Period, Vol. 4 (London: The Author, 1776), 267.
27. "The poetry of the opera, whose first author imitated the two tragedies of Monsieur Quinault, viz. Astartus and Amalasunta, has been newly revived upon the same plan, and adapted to the present taste by Signor John Gualberto Bottarelli, excepting many of the airs".
28. An asterisk crediting Johann Christian Bach's authorship also appears next to the final duet for Elisa and Clearco in Act 1; in the final quartet (Sidonia, Clearco, Fenicio, and Elisa) of Act 2; and, in the final duet between Elisa and Cleonides in Act 3. Ernest Warburton includes these three fragments in his catalogue, although he lists the two duets as lost. The quartet—also identified by Warburton—would correspond to a manuscript held by the British Library (GB-Lbl, Add. 31717); see Ernest Warburton, ed., The Collected Works of Johann Christian Bach 1735–1782. Vol. 9. La Clemenza di Scipione and Music from London pasticci (New York: Garland, 1990).
29. Donald Burrows and Rosemary Dunhill. Music and Theatre in Handel's World. The Family Papers of James Harris 1732–1780 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 299.
30. "His opera Didone was given nine times in the King's Theatre in the 1753–1754 season, but a version of Bertoldo put on in December 1754 at Covent Garden seems not to have repeated its successes on the Continent, being given only three times. The extent of Ciampi's association with the Italian opera seasons in London in this period is not known. By the end of 1756, he seems to have been back in Venice, as he resumed his operatic career there"; see Dennis Libby, Saskia Willaert and James L. Jackman, "Ciampi, Vincenzo (Legrenzio)" in New Grove Dictionary of Musics and Musicians, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com, accessed 29 June 2019.