This study explores several approaches and theories involved in the interpretation of Cervantes’s works in relation to his theological conscience and its implications in Don Quixote. This study is based on Barbara Johnson’s The Critical Difference: BartheS/BalZac and offers explicit illustrations that associate this method of reading to the Cervantine narrative. This exegesis examines the need to include a text and its context (with the text) in order to interpret accordingly both of them–text and context–and to be able to formulate valid inferences. If the context is not taken into consideration, the construal may become unreliable because the act of reading has taken place without the text, which would be the opposite of with the text (context); thus becoming an oxymoronic reading. A parallelism is also observed in the pair ciencia (science) and conciencia (with science). The scientific method provides the possibility of comparing and contrasting disciplines, arts, and sciences that lead to the legitimization of both the process and its outcomes through appraisal of discrepancies and similarities. The presence of both pairs (texto and contexto; ciencia and conciencia) work together in obtaining more unswerving conclusions and minimizing the risk of human errors, misinterpretations, and/or misreadings.